Six hundred and twelve monoclonal Ig (MIg) were studied for their antibody activity against the following autoantigens: actin, tubulin, thyroglobulin, myosin, myoglobin, fetuin, albumin, transferrin, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Of these 612 MIg, 36 (i.e., 5.75%) were shown to possess antibody activity. Thirty-two of these 36 (5.22% of the total) were mainly directed against actin. The four others were directed, respectively, against tubulin, myosin, thyroglobulin, and dsDNA. The interaction of the MIg with the respective antigen was demonstrated by immunoenzymatic methods with monospecific antisera and by blotting experiments. Furthermore, this interaction in the 12 cases studied was mediated by the dimeric fragment F(ab')2 of the MIg. The MIg with antitubulin, antithyroglobulin, and anti-dsDNA activities were exclusively inhibited by their homologous antigens. Those with antiactin activity were predominantly inhibited by actin and also by tubulin and thyroglobulin. The one binding to myosin was, for the most part, inhibited by myosin and also significantly by actin and tubulin. Retrospective clinical analysis was possible for 31/36 patients. Twenty- six of 31 had malignant lymphoplasmocytic disorders. The five others were followed for miscellaneous disorders without overt signs of multiple myeloma (MM) or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM). The correlation between the antibody activity of the MIg and the clinical features is discussed. These results indicate that a high proportion of MIg possess antibody activity against actin (5.22%). This incidence contrasts sharply with the positive reactions found toward all the other antigens tested: only one each for dsDNA, tubulin, thyroglobulin, and myosin, and none against myoglobin, fetuin, albumin, and transferrin. The significance of these results and the relationship between MIg and natural antibodies are discussed.