Antigenic changes detected by myeloid-specific monoclonal antibodies on HL-60 cells induced to differentiate by various chemical mediators were investigated using flow cytometry. Antigen levels detected by monocyte- granulocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies AML-2–23, 61D3, and 63D3 increased dramatically after differentiation of HL-60 cells along the granulocytic pathway by the addition of dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or cis-retinoic acid. The expression of these same antigens also increased in conjunction with monocytoid differentiation when HL-60 cells were treated with supernatants from leukocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA-LCM) or with mixed lymphocyte conditioned medium (MLC). In contrast, treatment of HL-60 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which also induced differentiation along the monocyte pathway, had no effect on the expression of these monocyte-associated antigens. The expression of antigens on HL-60 cells recognized by the granulocyte-specified monoclonal antibodies PMN 6 and PMN 29 decreased after treatment of HL- 60 cells with PMA, but remained constant after treatment with DMF, DMSO, cis-retinoic acid, PHA-LCM, or MLC. These results suggest that normal myeloid differentiation may be dependent on various signals and that morphological and cell surface marker maturity may, under some conditions, be separable. The utility of the HL-60 cell line as a model of myeloid differentiation and for evaluation of inductive signals is discussed.