BALB/c mice were immunized with human factor V. The immunogen was a mixture of procofactor (factor V) and thrombin-activated cofactor (factor Va). Spleen cells were obtained from an immunized animal and fused with NS-1 murine myeloma cells. Hybrid cell cultures were assayed for the production of antibodies to human factor V and factor Va by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Factor V and/or factor-Va-specific antibodies were detected in 38 of the 96 cultures assayed. The cells from 10 of these positive cultures were subcloned by limiting dilution and grown as ascites tumors in BALB/c mice. Ascitic fluids were obtained and characterized with respect to their binding interaction with human factor V and factor Va. Three hybridoma cell lines produce monoclonal antibodies that react equally well with factor V and factor Va. Another antibody reacts with both antigens, but the reactivity with factor V is better than with factor Va. An additional two antibodies react with factor Va better than factor V in the radioimmunoassay (RIA). The remaining four antibodies react exclusively with factor V. A previously described murine monoclonal antibody to human factor V (alpha HFV-1) has been used to study the peptides produced during the thrombin-catalyzed activation of human factor V. This antibody binds both factor V and factor Va, releases them at high ionic strength, and has an apparent dissociation constant for factor Va of 3 x 10(-9)M. When human factor V (mol wt 330,000) is activated by thrombin and passed over an alpha HFV-1-Sepharose affinity resin, factor Va binds and subsequently can be eluted. The eluate in 1.2 M NaCl contains two fragments of apparent mol wt 93,000 and 70,000. EDTA, which inactivates factor Va, promotes release of the mol wt 93,000 fragment from factor Va bound to the antibody. Subsequent elution with 1.2 M NaCl releases the mol wt 70,000 fragment. These observations indicate that human factor Va is a two subunit protein and that the epitope for alpha HFV-1 is on the mol wt 70,000 fragment.