The acute leukemia associated with the t(4;11) chromosome rearrangement is characterized by relatively consistent clinical features: occurrence primarily in young individuals, hyperleukocytosis, and poor response to therapy. This study describes the morphological, ultrastructural, and immunologic characteristics of the leukemic cells from ten patients with this type of leukemia. The morphological features of the leukemic blasts vary from lymphoid-appearing to monocytic. Ultrastructurally and cytochemically, some of the lymphoid-appearing blasts possess features of myeloid origin. The immunologic phenotype is characteristically E- SIg- CALLA- BA-1- BA-2+ HLA-DR+ and TdT+. These findings suggest that the t(4;11)-associated acute leukemia represents a proliferation of an early myeloid progenitor cell.