Twenty-four adults with ALL were treated with AMSA alone or in combination. Twenty-two were treated at time of relapse and two patients after failing primary induction therapy. All had been treated with anthracyclines prior to receiving AMSA. Of the 22 patients with ALL in relapse, 4 achieved a complete remission. Two of these patients have relapsed while receiving maintenance chemotherapy; one died 1 mo after achieving remission due to the occurrence of cholycystitis in the setting of pancytopenia and one patient underwent bone marrow transplantation and is in remission at 8 mo after the second remission. Both patients who failed primary induction therapy remain in remission at 11 and 36 mo, respectively. The use of AMSA should be considered for patients with ALL who fail primary induction as well as those whose leukemia becomes resistant to conventional agents.