We describe a surface determinant shared by human monocytes and cells of the megakaryocytic axis that has been identified using a mouse monoclonal antibody. This monocyte-platelet antigen (MPA) is expressed on all (greater than 99%) of peripheral blood monocytes, platelets, and megakaryocytes. It is also expressed weakly on the monocytic cell line U937 and the promyelocytic line HL60 and is present on cells from 3 of 4 AML patients examined. It is absent from polymorphonuclear leukocytes, T and B lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and a panel of hematopoietic cell lines. MPA is stripped from monocyte membranes with pronase and is reexpressed overnight. The determinant is carried on a noncovalently linked biomolecular complex with molecular weights of 93,000 and 135,000.