The immunochemical specificity of rabbit antisera to human fibrinopeptide-B (FPB) has been studied by comparing the relative abilities of FPB and of various proteins and peptides containing the NH2-terminal segment of the B beta-chain of human fibrinogen to inhibit the binding of a radioiodinated FPB derivative by each of seven anti- FPB sera. Anti-FBP sera varied in the extent to which they cross- reacted with fibrinogen, the NH2-terminal disulfide knot of fibrinogen (N-DSK), B beta 1(Pyr)-118(Met), B beta 1(Pyr)-42(Arg), and desarginyl- FPB. Anti-FPB sera have been identified that discriminate effectively between FPB and larger FBP-containing peptides; such antisera can be used to measure FPB in the absence of the larger peptides or to demonstrate the presence of larger peptides such as B beta 1(Pyr)- 42(Arg) in extracts of clinical plasma samples by means of an increase in FPB immunoreactivity following thrombin treatment. One anti-FPB serum has been identified that is capable of detecting desarginyl-FPB, and this antiserum has been used in the development of a radioimmunoassay for desarginyl-FPB. Thus, by precisely defining the specificity of anti-FPB sera, it has been possible to identify antisera that are useful, not only in the measurement of FPB, but also in the detection of other important related molecules, such as B beta 1(Pyr)- 42(Arg) and desarginyl-FPB. The immunochemical detection of these FPB- related peptides should provide useful information concerning the action of proteolytic enzymes, such as plasmin on the NH2-terminal segment of the B beta-chain of fibrinogen, and of carboxypeptidase-B on free FPB, in human plasma.