A monoclonal antibody, L5.1, obtained by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with HL60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells, was found to react with both HL60 cells and with the K562(S) cell line. This monoclonal antibody binds and immunoprecipitates a glycoprotein (Mr 87,000) present on the cell surface membrane of K562(S) as a disulfide bonded dimer. In competition experiments L5.1 competes with both transferrin and OKT9 (a known antitransferrin receptor antibody) for binding to target K562(S) erythroleukemia cells. Binding of both L5.1 and transferrin to the surface of K562(S) cells is inhibited by treatment with 12--O- tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, and the extent and time course of inhibition is similar in both cases. Cell sorting analysis of normal human marrow cells incubated with L5.1 indicates that L5.1 reacts strongly with all the morphologically recognizable erythroid lineage precursors, from the pronormoblast to the orthochromatic normoblast, and with reticulocytes. Erythrocytes, myeloid elements, monocytes, megakaryocytes and platelets, peripheral blood B and T lymphocytes do not bind significantly with this antibody and only a small fraction of promyelocytes was reactive. Antibody L5.1 did not react with leukemic cells of patients with acute lymphoblastic, myeloblastic and promyelocytic leukemias, but it did react with some established B (1 of 5) and T (2 of 3) cell lines, and a myeloid (1 of 3) cell line, and with PHA-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes. The nonhemopoietic cell lines tested did not bind with L5.1 with the exception of a colorectal adenocarcinoma and a melanoma cell line, which were both strongly positive. The relationship of antibody L5.1 to other monoclonal antibodies that bind the transferrin receptor is discussed.