Sixty-five multiply transfused patients with severe aplastic anemia were given cyclophosphamide followed by grafts anemia were given cyclophosphamide followed by grafts from HLA-identical siblings. The effect of the administration of viable donor buffy coat cells following the marrow inoculum was evaluated with regard to graft rejection and survival. Results in 43 patients so treated are presented along with those in 22 concurrent patients given marrow alone. Most patients given buffy coat had positive in vitro tests of sensitization indicating a high risk for graft rejection, while all but one of the patients given marrow alone had negative tests. Thirty of the 43 (70%) patients given marrow and buffy coat are alive between 10 and 61 mo (median 36) after grafting; 4 died after graft rejection and 6 with acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Eleven of the 22 (50%) patients given marrow alone are alive between 29 and 65 mo (median 52); 7 died after graft rejection and 3 with GVHD. The addition of buffy coat cell infusions to the marrow inoculum reduced the risk of rejection and increased survival in the currently reported transfused patients when compared to patients grafted before 1976. However, there was an increased risk of chronic GVHD. Recipients of marrow from female donors survived slightly better (73%) than recipients of male marrow (58%).