Using albumin and crystalloid as the only replacement fluids, the effect of partial plasma exchange on the removal and recovery of normal plasma constituents was studied. The results of 30 procedures on 10 individuals were evaluated. Four patterns of removal are described: reduction in the concentration of fibrinogen and C3 were greater than would be expected based upon the extent of the exchange, while IgG, IgM, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase and SGPT were removed as expected. Reduction of serum glutamicoxalacetic transaminase (SGOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), amylase, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) averaged 17% less, and uric acid, calcium and K+ averaged 53% less than expected. Concentrations of HCO-3 and glucose did not change. The mean recovery for all constituents except fibrinogen, C3, cholesterol. IgG and IgM was near 100% at 48–72 hr postpheresis. The 72-hr recovery of fibrinogen and complement was 66% and 60%, respectively. Cholesterol recovery was also slow, requiring a minimum of 1 wk to reach prepheresis levels. Measured at a time when quantitative IgM levels were still reduced, alloantibody agglutinating activity (anti-A and anti-B) in a postpheresis sample exceeded prepheresis agglutinating activity. These data demonstrated that, depending upon quantity and frequency of pheresis, partial plasma exchange using albumin replacement may cause progressive marked reduction in concentrations of immunoglobulin, complement, fibrinogen, and cholesterol. Furthermore, newly synthesized antibody may have increased biologic activity.