Many human globin-chain mutants contain amino acid replacements that result from single base changes in the corresponding globin gene. Using recombinants, the coding sequences of each of the alpha-, beta-, Ggamma- , and Agamma-globin genes have now been determined. Those sequences of DNA that are cleaved by a number of specific restriction endonucleases have been identified and accurately positioned. Mutations at these sequences abolish the restriction site, and therefore, the pattern of DNA fragments containing hybridizing globin-gene sequences is altered compared to DNA from normal persons. This allows the identification of one of a pair of cross-hybridizing human globin-gene sequences, as is shown here for the two alpha-globin, the two gamma-globin, and the delta- and beta-globin genes.