Cultures of Friend erythroleukemia cells were subjected to the antibiotics trimethoprim (T) and sulfamethoxazole (S) at levels equal to or below the usual therapeutic range. At T 8 microgram/ml and S 40 microgram/ml, cell growth was arrested, cells appeared megaloblastic, and the examination of cell-cycle distribution by flow microfluorimetry revealed arrest in S phase. With a tenfold reduction in drug levels (T, 08 microgram/ml; S, 4 microgram/ml) cell growth was less markedly inhibited, morphology remained megaloblastic, and S-phase block was still dramatic. A further tenfold reduction (T, 0.08 microgram/ml; S, 0.4 microgram/ml), well below effective antibacterial levels, allowed normal cell growth and morphology but DNA synthesis was still inhibited. Additions of folinic acid at 100 ng/ml averted all drug effects. Thus T/S can affect cell replication even at levels well below those usually employed and could prolong the rate of recovery of hematopoietic cells in the myelosuppressed patient.