Human erythrocyte lysate proteins were resolved into over 250 discrete spots by two-dimensional electrophoresis using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, (SDS) in the second. The overwhelming excess of hemoglobin has made such analyses difficult in the past. However, with the ISO-DALT two-dimensional electrophoresis system, large numbers of red cell proteins can be mapped in the presence of hemoglobin. When hemoglobin and several other major proteins are removed by adsorption to DEAE-cellulose, additional minor components are seen, giving a total of over 275. With the use of purified preparations, the map positions of five cell enzymes or their subunits were determined: pyruvate kinase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, and carbonic anhydrase. The mapping techniques described complement and extend those traditionally used to find human red cell protein variants.