Thirty-three patients with newly diagnosed chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) were treated with melphalan between 1968 and 1976. Within 3 mo of beginning therapy subjective and objective disease parameters improved. Disease control was easily maintained with this agent until hematologic exacerbation occurred. The median duration of disease control was 25.3 mo, and the median duration of survival was 28.6 mo. Serious side effects were not produced. Thus melphalan appears to be another agent that may be used to control the manifestations of CGL prior to hematologic exacerbation.