Granulocytic (colony-forming units in culture, or CFU-c) and erythrocytic (erythropoietin-responsive cells, or ERC) progenitor cells in canine cyclic hematopoiesis (CH) have been shown to fluctuate over the cycle and in the same phases as one another. The ERC cycle is preceded by 3 or 4 days by a rise in serum erythroid-stimulating activity and is followed by a reticulocytosis. During the cycle CFU-c show a differential sensitivity to two sera, one normal and one containing elevated amounts of colony-stimulating activity. The proliferation rate of CFU-c also fluctuates from well above normal to considerably less than normal over the cycle. These results are discussed in the light of present knowledge of the pathogenesis of canine CH. We suggest that these results support the contention that CH is a disorder of hemopoietic stem cells and that the cycling of humoral factors and peripheral blood cells may follow as a consequence.