The serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and erythropoietin (Ep) were measured in 16 patients with iron-deficiency anemia and 15 patients with the anemia of chronic disease. Levels of both CSF and Ep in the serum of patients with iron-deficiency anemia had an inverse linear relationship to the level of the packed cell volume (PCV). There was no correlation between PCV and the levels of CSF or Ep in the serum of patients with the anemia of chronic disease. The similarity in the behavior of CSF and Ep in iron-deficiency anemia suggests that they may be influenced by similar control mechanisms or have a common cellular or molecular source.

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