An anticoagulant activity from adult Schistosoma mansoni whole worm homogenate is described. The inhibitor appears to be specific for the contact activation step of the intrinsic pathway. Experiments with both human and mouse plasmas have defined the specificity of the inhibitor as follows: (1) It lengthens the partial thromboplastin time of normal plasma. (2) It has no effect on the prothombin time and Russell's viper venom time of normal plasma. (3) Preactivation of normal plasma by a contact activator such as Celite eliminates essentially all inhibitory activity. (4) The inhibitor appears to be heat stable and can be precipitated by centrifugation above 27,000 g. (5) The inhibitor has no effect on the activation of factor XII by Celite. (6) The activation of factor XI by factor XIIa, however, is inhibited by the schistosomal inhibitor. The above data are consistent with the view that S. mansoni adults possess an anticoagulant that is capable of specifically inhibiting the conversion of factor XI to factor XIa by factor XIIa.