Eighty-three patients with circulating anticoagulants were studied at The New York Hospital. The lupus-type anticoagulant, an inhibitor of the prothrombin activator complex, was demonstrated in 58 patients. The inhibitor was identified using the blood and tissue thromboplastin inhibition tests. Inhibition by the lupus anticoagulant was augmented in 67% of these patients by a cofactor present in normal plasma. The lupus inhibitor was detected primarily because of an unsuspected abnormal coagulation test. One-half of the patients with the lupus-type anticoagulant did not have systemic lupus erythematosus.