Proliferation and differentiation of granulocytes, macrophages, and both myeloid committed (CFC) and pluripotent (CFU) stem cells in diffusion chamber (DC) cultures of fetal liver were studied in order to evaluate the role of circulating humoral factors in the control of fetal myelopoiesis. When DC with fetal liver cells were implanted into mice rendered neutropenic by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide, more granulocytes and CFC were produced through day 10 as compared to DC implanted into saline pretreated control hosts. A difference in CFU recovery from fetal liver suspensions grown in DC implanted into neutropenic and control hosts was not seen until day 10. Serum CSF concentrations were increased in neutropenic as compared to control host mice 2 and 3 days after implantation of DC. Levels of serum inhibitors of colony growth showed marked variability but, in general, were similar in both groups. These data provide evidence that fetal CFC and fetal myelopoiesis are influenced by a circulating humoral factor present in neutropenic serum. CSF may be the factor, although the data presented in this paper do not establish this with any certainty.