A relatively potent antiserum against highly purified, unactivated human factor XI antigen was raised in a rabbit. This antiserum, after concentration, neutralized 50% of the factor XI clotting activity of a standard normal plasma at an antiserum dilution of 1/900. The antiserum was used in a neutralization-inhibition assay to study the relation between factor XI clotting activity and factor XI antigen in plasma from ten unrelated patients with homozygous factor XI deficiency and from 12 heterozygous family members of these patients. No evidence of factor XI antigen significantly in excess of factor XI activity was found in either group. All data to date have been consistent with the hypothesis that hereditary factor XI deficiency represents a genetic disorder resulting from the absence of factor XI molecule. Severity of bleeding in factor XI deficiency could not be correlated with the level of factor XI activity or factor XI antigen.