Protein-mediated B12 uptake by isolated rat liver mitochondria has been shown to be enhanced by plasma transcobalamin (TC-II) but not by salivary R binder in vitro. The process is enhanced by calcium and depends on active mitochondrial respiration. Following uptake, cyanocobalamin is converted to adenosyl and methylcobalamins and released from the mitochondria. TC-II appears to be required for both cellular and mitochondrial uptake of vitamin B12.

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