Since dialysis of human factor VIII against buffers of low ionic strength yielded two distinct components, and since the factor VIII fraction isolated from normal plasma showed von Willebrand factor activity as defined by the corrective effect on abnormal platelet retention and ristocetin aggregation in von Willebrand's disease, the present studies were performed to determine if the correcting activities could be attributed to one or both of the components. Dialysis of factor VIII against buffers of low ionic strength led, however, to a decrease in factor VIII procoagulant activity and the reduction of the correcting activities, which suggested that the intact aggregate was required for procoagulant activity and for von Willebrand factor activity. In this respect dialysis of factor VIII at low ionic strength differed from dissociation at high salt concentrations. The two low ionic strength components were identified by the use of a rabbit antiserum against factor VIII, and could be distinguished on the basis of specific antigenic structures. Dialysis of factor VIII at low ionic strength led to a decrease in antigenic determinants closely related to factor VIII function. Specific antibodies to the low ionic strength components inhibited factor VIII activity in normal plasma, but the residual factor VIII was higher than that after inhibition with antibodies against intact factor VIII. Both antibodies interfered with von Willebrand factor activity.