Erythrocytes are hemolyzed by myeloperoxidase, an H2O2-generating system (glucose + glucose oxidase; hypoxanthine + xanthine oxidase) and an oxidizable cofactor (chloride, iodide, thyroxine, triiodothyronine). The combined effect of chloride and either iodide or the thyroid hormones is greater than additive. Myeloperoxidase can be replaced by lactoperoxidase in the iodide-, thyroxine and triiodothyronine- dependent, but not in the chloride-dependent, systems. Hemolysis is is inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitors, azide and cyanide, and by catalase and is stimulated by superoxide dismutase when the xanthine oxidase system is employed as the source of H2O2. Hemolysis by the iodide-dependent system is associated with the iodination of erythrocyte components.