A patient presented with pure red cell aplasia, which responded to corticosteroids. Thirteen months later, a malignant pleural effusion developed, with subsequent death from adenocarcinomatosis. The reports of cases in which pure red cell aplasia has been associated with carcinomata are reviewed. An autoimmune mechanism can be postulated in these circumstances, and the complete response to corticosteroids in the present case would support this hypothesis.

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