The serum muramidase levels of 45 patients with polycythemia vera were found to be significantly elevated above the values in 20 normal subjects. The patients with polycythemia vera who were studied included those with active disease, those controlled with myelosuppressive agents and those in the spent phase. A high degree of correlation was found between muramidase levels and leukocyte count, granulocyte count, serum uric acid, serum vitamin B12 content and unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity. No correlation was found between muramidase levels and hematocrit, monocyte count and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase activity. It is felt that this study lends support to the origin of serum muramidase from granulocytes and that elevated levels of serum muramidase in the subjects studied are a reflection of the involvement of the granulocyte in the proliferative process responsible for polycythemia vera.

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