An abnormal hemoglobin has been observed in a southern Italian family together with sickle cell hemoglobin and thalassemia (microcythemia). The hematologic study has shown that all the carriers of the abnormal hemoglobin are microcythemic. The hemoglobins of these individuals have been studied by paper, starch gel, starch block and agar gel electrophoresis. The abnormal hemoglobin has been isolated and identified by fingerprinting as Hb LeporeBoston. The combination of Hb LeporeBoston with thalassemia and sickle cell trait has been observed in members of this family. The hematologic and biochemical implications of the Hb Lepore/thalassemia disease are discussed.