Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major complication of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is the leading cause of liver disease in hemophilia population and was acquired with their first transfusion. While direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are effective in HCV eradication, its impact on preventing HCC remains unclear. Few data on HCC in hemophilia after DAA are available. We undertook an observational study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for HCC in hemophilia since the introduction of DAAs.
Methods: We conducted an observational study including adult male discharges in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2016-2018. Status of hemophilia (H) and non-hemophilia (NH), HCV, HCC, and other relevant medical conditions were identified using ICD-10 codes. Analysis included NIS-provided discharge-level weights to reflect national estimates. Categorical and continuous variables were assessed by Rao-Scott Chi-Square and weighted simple linear regression, respectively. Weighted multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine HCC risk factors. Variables included were age, race, HCV, HIV, alcoholism, smoking, obesity, hyperlipidemia (HLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), substance abuse, transfusion, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI).
Results: In total, 7,674,969 adult male discharges, including 3,370 with H (0.04%), were identified between 2016 and 2018. Between 2016 and 2018, the diagnosis rates of HCV were 10.06% (95%CI 8.97%-11.26%) in H vs. 1.22% (95%CI 1.19%-1.25%) in NH, and the rates of HCC were 1.07% (95%CI 0.76%-1.51%) in H vs. 0.27% (95%CI 0.26%-0.28%) in NH. The diagnosis rates of HCV and HCC were similar in 2016, 2017 and 2018, for both H and NH populations. Compared with H without HCC, H with HCC were older (58.6 vs. 50.9 years-old, p<0.001), had higher CCI (mean : 6.5 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 2.0, p<0.001), and higher prevalence of HCV (36.11% vs. 9.78%, p<0.001), HBV (11.11% vs. 0.45%, p<0.001), NASH (5.56% vs. 0.12%, p<0.001), end-stage liver disease (88.89% vs. 8.61%, p<0.001), portal hypertension (27.78% vs. 2.61%, p<0.001), and platelet transfusion (11.11% vs. 1.44%, p<0.001). The prevalence of HIV infection between H with and without HCC was similar (8.33% vs. 8.82%, p=0.919). Among these with HCC, H were more likely to be younger (58.6 vs. 64.1 years-old, p=0.001), HIV (+) (8.33% vs. 1.64%, p=0.002), and less likely to have alcoholism (11.1% vs. 33.2%, p=0.018) and HLD (2.78% vs. 20.8%, p=0.008), than NH. The rates of cirrhosis, NASH, autoimmune hepatitis, and biliary cirrhosis were similar between groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis among H patients indicated that NASH (OR 21.6, 95%CI 4.63-100.6), HCV (OR 3.96, 95%CI 1.55-10.2), and CCI (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.39-1.72) were significant risk factors for HCC, while HIV (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.13) and HLD (H: OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.39) were protective.
Conclusion: From 2016 to 2018, the rate of HCC did not significantly decrease in discharges with hemophilia in the NIS database. Chronic HCV infection remains a significant risk factor of HCC in hemophilia despite availability of DAA therapy. NASH and Charlson comorbidity contribute to HCC risk, while HIV and hyperlipidemia appear protective.
Ragni: Takeda Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; BioMarin Pharmaceutical: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Bioverativ (Sanofi): Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Spark Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Alnylam (Sanofi): Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; University of Pittsburgh: Research Funding.
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