INTRODUCTION: The recent introduction of new therapies for people with hemophilia A and B (HA and HB) mandates careful monitoring of the safety of these treatments. The primary aim of ATHN 7: A Natural History Study of the Safety, Effectiveness, and Practice of Treatment for People with Hemophilia (NCT03619863) is to monitor the safety of current hemophilia therapies.

METHODS: ATHN 7 is a longitudinal, prospective cohort study being conducted at 26 American Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network (ATHN)-affiliated sites. The study is approved by central and local institutional review boards. Any person with a diagnosis of congenital hemophilia A or B (factor VIII or IX activity < 50%) who receives care at a participating site is eligible for inclusion. Participants and/or a parent/guardian sign informed consent and assent prior to participation. Adverse events, including those events designated by the European Haemophilia Safety Surveillance group as well as other adverse events of special interest, are recorded and monitored. Demographic and clinical information are collected at baseline and at least quarterly through participant interview and medical record review. Descriptive statistics of medical history and demographic data as well as longitudinal data are used to characterize the study population.

RESULTS: As of June 2021, a total of 391 participants had enrolled in ATHN 7. The median age of participants was 22.5 ± 17.8 years. Males represented 97.7% (382/391) of participants. Eighty-five percent (333/391) were not Hispanic. White participants comprised 82.6% (323/391) of the study population, while 7.9% (31/391) were Black/African American, 3.8% (15/391) were Asian, 1.8% (7/391) were of mixed race, and 3.8% (15/391) were of other or unknown race. The primary diagnosis of participants included 70.1% (274/391) with severe HA, 15.3% (60/391) with moderate HA, 7.2% (28/391) with mild HA, 4.1% (16/391) with severe HB, 2.0% (8/391) with moderate HB, and 1.0% (4/391) with mild HB. Nineteen percent (71/391) of participants had a documented history of an inhibitor at the time of enrollment with a mean peak inhibitor titer of 96.7 ± 214.3 Bethesda Units. Substitution therapy with a non-factor molecule was the primary medication for 43.4% (162/391) participants, while 4.3% (16/391) utilized a plasma-derived clotting factor concentrate, 28.4% (196/391) utilized a standard half-life, recombinant factor concentrate, 18.3% (126/391) utilized an extended half-life recombinant factor concentrate, 4.1% (28/391) utilized a bypassing agent, and 19.3% (133/391) utilized some other hemostatic agent. Continuous prophylaxis was the primary regimen for 79.1% (295/391) participants. The remaining 19.6% (73/391) of participants were on episodic therapy. Within the cohort of 391 participants, a total of 14 adverse events have been reported in 8 participants. No adverse events of special interest were reported. Redness or rash at injection site accounted for 64.2% (9/14) of the reported adverse events, all in participants receiving emicizumab. Two participants experienced bruising or bleeding while on emicizumab. Two participants on emicizumab were diagnosed with malignancy, neither found to be attributed to their therapy. One participant developed an allergic reaction to their standard half-life recombinant factor concentrate.

DISCUSSION: Open to enrollment in January 2019, ATHN 7 has now collected 18 months of longitudinal safety data for therapies used to treat HA and HB in 391 participants, an addition of 12 months and 24 participants since our last report. As the study was designed to enhance representation of those utilizing substitution therapy, almost half of the participants were on emicizumab for prophylaxis of bleeding. Adverse events attributable to hemophilia therapy was limited to minor skin reactions. As previously reported, a single participant experienced delayed bleeding after closed head trauma (despite factor replacement and normal intracranial imaging at the time of the event), providing potentially important information on the risk of delayed bleeding from significant trauma in those receiving emicizumab. Over the coming year, participants in ATHN 7 will be transitioned to ATHN's new longitudinal natural history study, ATHN TRANSCENDS (NCT04398628).


Buckner:Pfizer: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria; Bayer: Honoraria; Sanofi: Honoraria; Spark: Honoraria; Genetech: Honoraria; CSL Behring: Honoraria; Novo Nordisk: Honoraria; Tremeau Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Honoraria; BioMarin: Consultancy, Honoraria; uniQure: Consultancy, Honoraria; American Thrombosis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Hemostasis Network: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Carpenter:Hemophilia and Thrombosis Research Society: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Kedrion Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria; Genentech: Honoraria; Novo Nordisk: Honoraria. Raffini:Genentech: Consultancy; CSL Behring: Consultancy; HEMA Biologics: Consultancy; XaTek: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy. Zia:Takeda: Consultancy; Hemophilia and Thrombosis Research Society: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Recht:Hema Biologics: Consultancy; Kedrion: Consultancy; Novo Nordisk: Consultancy; Octapharma: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Sanofi: Consultancy; Takeda: Consultancy; uniQure: Consultancy; Foundation for Women and Girls with Blood Disorders, Partners in Bleeding Disorders: Speakers Bureau; American Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network: Current Employment; Oregon Health & Science University: Current Employment; Genentech: Consultancy; CSL Behring: Consultancy; Catalyst Biosciences: Consultancy.

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