Early data suggest that patients undergoing salvage chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) have poor outcomes if infected with SARS-CoV-2, and nosocomial transmission has been a major problem worldwide. Gilteritinib is effective in R/R FLT3 mutated AML, is significantly less immunosuppressive and does not require hospital admission, however at the start of the pandemic this was not yet approved for routine use in all countries. In the United Kingdom, the National Health Service (NHS) made gilteritinib available as an emergency measure from late April 2020 to patients aged >16y with R/R FLT3 mutated AML, with the aim of reducing both mortality and healthcare resource use. We report a health-system-wide real world data collection for toxicity and patient outcomes across 27 NHS Hospitals.
Each patient was registered on a central NHS database, with clinicians certifying that their patient met the above criteria. Anonymised data were retrospectively collected by treating physicians. Gilteritinib dose, duration and toxicity information was requested for the first 4 cycles of therapy. Response definitions were as per European Leukaemia Network (ELN) guidelines. A total of 81 patients have been registered on the scheme, with outcomes reported here for those with follow-up information at a data cut on 1st August 2021.
Fifty patients were included with a median age of 59y (range 19 - 77) and 50% male. The majority (83%) had an ECOG performance status of 0-1. AML was secondary to a previous haematological disorder in 12%, therapy-related in 4% and de novo in the remaining 84%. The disease was refractory to the last therapy in 38%. Most patients had previously received 1 (65%) or 2 (33%) lines of therapy, including intensive chemotherapy in a majority (86%). A FLT3 inhibitor had previously been administered to 45% and 35% were post allogeneic transplant. The FLT3 mutation was an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in 80% and tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutation in 22%. NPM1 mutations were detected in 34%. Next-generation sequencing results were available for 94% of patients, with mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 in 12.5%, ASXL1 in 2%, RUNX1 in 21% and no TP53 mutations.
Patients spent a median 3.5 days in hospital in cycle 1, 0 days in cycles 2 and 3 and 1 day in cycle 4. In cycles 1, 2, 3 and 4, the median number of days of grade 4 neutropenia was 18, 7, 7.5, and 6.5 respectively, and the grade 4 thrombocytopenia was 2, 7, 0.5 and 0.5. The composite complete remission (CR) / CR with incomplete haematological recovery (CRi) rate was 27%. MRD data is being collected. The best response was morphological leukaemia free state (MLFS) in 4%, partial remission (PR) in 25% and refractory disease in 38%. The rate of combined CR/CRi did not differ in those with previous exposure to FLT3 inhibitors (23% vs 32%, p=0.6) or with past allogeneic transplant (29% vs 27%, p=0.3). There were no CR/CRi in patients with adverse cytogenetic risk.
Median follow-up was 10.5 months (95%CI 7.3 - 12.3) with median overall survival (OS) 6.7 months (95%CI 4.5 - not reached). Mortality at day 30 was 0% and day 60 was 14%. 12-month overall survival was 38%. Patients who achieved a CR/CRi had a 12-month OS of 83%, and for PR this was 35%. Survival did not differ in those with previous FLT3 inhibitor exposure (HR 1.0, p>0.9) or allogeneic transplant (HR 0.63, p=0.3). Seven patients (14%) so far have been bridged with gilteritinib to allogeneic transplant.
Our data demonstrate that gilteritinib is well tolerated and clinically active in adults with relapsed FLT3 mutated AML. Importantly, during the COVID-19 pandemic, its availability has permitted the great majority of treatment to be delivered as an outpatient with significant resource saving at a time of critically constrained inpatient resources. Patients who achieve CR/CRi have good short-term outcomes and are able to proceed to a potentially curative allogeneic stem cell transplant.
Belsham: Celgene: Other: meeting attendance; Abbvie: Other: meeting attendance. Byrne: Incyte: Honoraria. Khan: Abbvie: Honoraria; Astellas: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria; Jazz: Honoraria; Gilead: Honoraria; Novartis: Honoraria. Khwaja: Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Astellas: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Latif: Kite: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Jazz: Consultancy, Honoraria; Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy, Honoraria; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria; Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria; Astellas: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Takeda UK: Speakers Bureau. Loke: Amgen: Honoraria; Daichi Sankyo: Other: Travel Support; Janssen: Honoraria; Novartis: Other: Travel Support; Pfizer: Honoraria. Munisamy: Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Speakers Bureau; Roche: Speakers Bureau. Murthy: Abbvie: Other: support to attend educational conferences.. Smith: Daiichi Sankyo: Speakers Bureau; Pfizer: Speakers Bureau; ARIAD: Honoraria. Craddock: Novartis Pharmaceuticals: Other: Advisory Board ; Celgene/BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Dillon: Amgen: Other: Research support (paid to institution); Astellas: Consultancy, Other: Educational Events , Speakers Bureau; Menarini: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Session chair (paid to institution), Speakers Bureau; Pfizer: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: educational events; Jazz: Other: Education events; Shattuck Labs: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Abbvie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Research Support, Educational Events.
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