Dysregulated homologous recombination (HR) contributes to the acquisition of genomic changes and development of drug resistance over time in multiple myeloma (MM). We have now further investigated the molecular intermediates that may play an important role in HR process. We observe that ABL kinase, which regulates RAD51 through its phosphorylation, contributes to increased HR activity and genomic instability in myeloma. Moreover, Cellular response after DSBs involves nuclear re-localization of ABL1 upon DNA damage. A cellular localization of ABL1 has been confirmed in MM. Consistently, we observe that ABL kinase inhibitor reduces HR activity and genomic instability (as assessed by micronucleus assay) in MM cells.
Based on our observation that melphalan increases genomic instability (as assessed by micronuclei assay and by whole genome sequencing), we sought to investigate impact of melpahalan on HR and role of ABL1 kinase in this process. We show that treatment with melphalan leads to increase in RAD51 expression and HR activity in MM cells in a dose-dependent manner. Evaluation by RNA sequencing showed that treatment of MM1S cells with melphalan is associated with upregulation of p53 signaling (containing multiple genes involved in DNA damage, detection of damaged sites, recombination/repair and genomic instability) as the topmost pathway. These findings suggest that melphalan-induced DNA damage leads to a concerted overexpression of genes involved in DNA damage response, recombination, genomic instability and chemoresistance. With the role of ABL1-kinase following DSB, we investigated and report that treatment with melphalan induces micronuclei formation, whereas nilotinib significantly reduces both the basal and melphlalan-induced micronuclei in all MM cell lines tested.
We have now confirmed these observations by evaluating copy number alterations using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. To evaluate the impact of nilotinib, melphalan and their combination on genomic instability, we cultured MM cells in the presence of nilotinib (2.5 µM), melphalan (1 µM) and combination of both drugs for three weeks and investigated the acquisition of new copy number events, relative to "day 0" cells (serving as baseline genome), using SNP arrays. Treatment with melphalan led to massive increase in the acquisition of amplification and deletion events, whereas nilotinib not only reduced the acquisition of copy number events under spontaneous condition but also almost completely reversed/prevented those induced by melphlalan. Importantly, the treatment with nilotinib could also significantly sensitized MM cell lines and bone marrow plasma cells from relapsed MM patients to melphalan treatment. These data confirm that ABL1 inhibition reduces spontaneous and melphalan-induced genomic instability in MM cells.
Since components of cell cycle play critical role in the maintenance of genome stability and growth, we investigated the impact of ABL1-inhibitor nilotinib, alone and in combination with melphalan, on cell cycle. Treatment of MM1S cells with melphalan for 48hrs led to 2.5-fold increase in the accumulation of cells in S-phase, suggesting an increase in replication stress by melphalan. Nilotinib reduced both the spontaneous and melphalan-induced fraction of S-phase cells by 27% (±2%) and 30% (±1%), respectively. Combined treatment with nilotinib and melphalan also increased sub G1 fraction of cells by 2.3-fold compared to those treated with melphalan alone, suggesting increased apoptosis in these cells. These data are consistent with our observation that treatment of MM cells with melphalan increase the phosphorylation of RPA32, a marker of replication stress while nilotinib reduces both the endogenous and melphalan-induced phosphorylated RPA32 level, suggesting that nilotinib might also be helpful in combating replication stress-mediated genomic instability.
Taken together, these data demonstrate the critical role of ABL1-kinase in both spontaneous and drug (melphalan)-induced genomic instability and its inhibition could reduce/delay genomic evolution while enhancing cytotoxicity in multiple myeloma.
Fulciniti:NIH: Research Funding. Munshi:Takeda: Consultancy; Karyopharm: Consultancy; AbbVie: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy; Legend: Consultancy; Adaptive: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy; C4: Current equity holder in private company; OncoPep: Consultancy, Current equity holder in private company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Patents & Royalties; BMS: Consultancy.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.