Introduction: There are few data about prognostication and outcomes in patients (pts) with HIV-BL treated in the cART era. Optimal treatment strategies to minimize treatment-related mortality (TRM) remain unclear and current recommendations are based on small studies. We conducted a multicenter international analysis to identify prognostic factors and outcomes in pts with HIV-BL treated in the cART era.

Methods: This retrospective analysis included a subcohort from a recent study across 30 US sites (Evens et al. Blood 2020) augmented by data from 5 UK centers treated 2009-2018. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier & differences assessed by log-rank test. Univariate (UVA) associations were derived via Cox model and multivariable (MVA) models were constructed by forward selection of significant variables with P<0.05.

Results: 249 (US: 140 & UK: 109) pts with newly diagnosed HIV-BL were included. Clinical features included median age 43 (IQR 35-50 years [yrs]); male sex: 84%; ECOG PS: 2-4: 48%; elevated LDH: 85% (> 3x upper limit of normal (ULN) 49% & >5xULN 39%); >1 extranodal (EN) site: 60%; any CNS involvement (CNSinv) 25%; and +bone marrow (BM) 46%. MYC rearrangement was reported in 93% of pts with t(8;14) in 49%, break-apart probe in 41% and MYC-light chain in 3%; the rest had classical BL with negative MYC testing (4%) or missing result (3%) (otherwise classical BL). Median CD4 count was 217 (IQR 90-392 cells/µL) with 68% pts having CD4>100 cells/µL. At BL diagnosis, HIV viral load was detectable in 55%; 39% of pts were on cART. Baseline features were similar between the US & UK cohorts with significant differences only in ECOG PS 2-4 (32% vs 65%; P<0.001) & baseline CNSinv (30% vs 17%, respectively; P=0.02).

Tx regimens included: CODOX-M/IVAC (Magrath) 60%, DA-EPOCH 25%, HyperCVAD/MA 13%, & other 1%; most pts (87%) received rituximab (R). Similar regimens were used in pts with baseline CNSinv: Magrath 64%, DA-EPOCH 24% & HyperCVAD 12%. In the US, pts most frequently received DA-EPOCH (42%) followed by Magrath (32%) & HyperCVAD/MA (24%), whereas in the UK, 96% received Magrath. R was more frequently given in the US (94% vs 79%, P<0.001). Similar baseline features were seen in US pts selected for DA-EPOCH as those selected for Magrath or HyperCVAD/MA except for lower median CD4 count (144 vs 260 cells/µL; P=0.04). Overall response to Tx was: CR 70%, PR 9%, PD 14%, not evaluable 7%. TRM was 18% following HyperCVAD/MA, 13% after DA-EPOCH & 7% in patients treated with Magrath. Overall, 33% of pts had a relapse of HIV-BL with 23% systemic only & 10% CNS.

With median follow-up of 4.5 yrs, 3-yr PFS & OS were 61% & 66%, respectively, and nearly identical in both countries (Fig A). Pts with CD4>100 cells/µL had better 3-yr PFS (Fig B) & OS (68% vs 57% P=0.03). We observed significantly worse outcomes in pts with baseline CNSinv (3-yr PFS 36% vs 69%, P<0.001; OS 41% vs 73%, P<0.001; Fig C). Magrath was associated with the highest 3-yr PFS (66%) compared with 63% after HyperCVAD/MA & 51% after DA-EPOCH, but the difference was not significant (P=0.13; Fig D). Pts receiving R had numerically higher PFS, but also not statistically significant (63% vs 53% P=0.16). We observed poor outcomes in pts with baseline CNSinv regardless of frontline Tx (3-yr PFS HyperCVAD/MA 40%, Magrath 39%, DA-EPOCH 32%; P=0.93; Fig E).

The incidence of CNS recurrence at 3 yr across all Tx was 11%. Higher incidence was observed with DA-EPOCH (P=0.032 vs other regimens; Fig F) with no difference according to CD4 count. Variables associated with PFS & OS on UVA included: ECOG PS 2-4, >1 EN, +BM, baseline CNSinv, LDH>ULN, CD4 <100 cells/µL. On MVA, the variables independently associated with inferior PFS were ECOG PS 2-4 (HR 1.87 P=0.007); baseline CNSinv (HR 1.70, P=0.023); LDH >5xULN (HR 2.09, P<0.001); and >1 EN sites (HR 1.58 P=0.043). The same variables were significant on MVA for OS. Adjusting for all of the prognostic variables, Tx with Magrath was associated with longer PFS (adjusted HR, 0.45, P=0.005).

Conclusions: These data represent the largest analysis of HIV-BL to date. There were favorable tolerance and outcomes with intensive R-containing regimens with Magrath being associated with lower TRM and the highest PFS. In addition, prognostic factors for pt outcomes were associated with lymphoma characteristics rather than with HIV-related features. Pts with baseline CNSinv represent a high-risk group with unmet therapeutic needs.


Alderuccio:Oncinfo: Honoraria; Puma Biotechnology: Other: Family member; ADC Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; OncLive: Honoraria; Inovio Pharmaceuticals: Other: Family member; Foundation Medicine: Other: Family member; Forma Therapeutics: Other: Family member; Agios Pharmaceuticals: Other: Family member. Olszewski:Spectrum Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; TG Therapeutics: Research Funding; Adaptive Biotechnologies: Research Funding; Genentech, Inc.: Research Funding. Evens:Epizyme: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy, Honoraria; Merck: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria; Mylteni: Consultancy, Honoraria; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; MorphoSys: Consultancy, Honoraria; Research To Practice: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria. Collins:Gilead: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; MSD: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Taekda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: travel, accommodations, expenses, Speakers Bureau; BeiGene: Consultancy; Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: travel, accommodations, expenses , Speakers Bureau; Celleron: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; ADC Therapeutics: Consultancy, Honoraria; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Pfizer: Honoraria. Danilov:Astra Zeneca: Consultancy, Research Funding; Verastem Oncology: Consultancy, Research Funding; Takeda Oncology: Research Funding; Gilead Sciences: Research Funding; Bayer Oncology: Consultancy, Research Funding; Genentech: Consultancy, Research Funding; TG Therapeutics: Consultancy; Nurix: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy; Aptose Biosciences: Research Funding; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Rigel Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Karyopharm: Consultancy; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy; BeiGene: Consultancy; Abbvie: Consultancy. Jagadeesh:Seattle Genetics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Debiopharm Group: Research Funding; MEI Pharma: Research Funding; Verastem: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Regeneron: Research Funding. Reddy:Genentech: Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy; BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy; KITE Pharma: Consultancy. Farooq:Kite, a Gilead Company: Honoraria. Bond:Seattle Genetics: Honoraria. Khan:Celgene: Research Funding; Janssen: Honoraria; Pharmacyclics: Honoraria; Bristol Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Yazdy:Bayer: Honoraria; Genentech: Research Funding; Octapharma: Consultancy; Abbvie: Consultancy. Karmali:Karyopharm: Honoraria; Takeda: Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Speakers Bureau; BeiGene: Speakers Bureau; BMS/Celgene/Juno: Honoraria, Other, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Gilead/Kite: Honoraria, Other, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Martin:Janssen: Consultancy; Regeneron: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy; Sandoz: Consultancy; I-MAB: Consultancy; Beigene: Consultancy; Cellectar: Consultancy; Incyte: Consultancy; Kite: Consultancy; Morphosys: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy; Teneobio: Consultancy; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Research Funding. Diefenbach:Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Research Funding; Denovo: Research Funding; Genentech, Inc.: Consultancy, Research Funding; Incyte: Research Funding; LAM Therapeutics: Research Funding; MEI: Research Funding; Merck: Consultancy, Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Millenium/Takeda: Research Funding; Trillium: Research Funding. Klein:Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Haverkos:Viracta THerapeutics: Consultancy. Epperla:Verastem Oncology: Speakers Bureau; Pharmacyclics: Honoraria. Caimi:Amgen: Other: Advisory Board; Bayer: Other: Advisory Board; Kite Pharma: Other: Advisory Board; ADC Therapeutics: Other: Advisory Board, Research Funding; Celgene: Speakers Bureau; Verastem: Other: Advisory Board. Kamdar:Roche: Research Funding. Feldman:Eisai: Research Funding; Pfizer: Research Funding; Kyowa Kirin: Consultancy, Research Funding; Portola: Research Funding; Janssen: Speakers Bureau; AstraZeneca: Consultancy; Trillium: Research Funding; Cell Medica: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Honoraria, Other, Speakers Bureau; Abbvie: Honoraria; Bayer: Consultancy, Honoraria; Viracta: Research Funding; Rhizen: Research Funding; Corvus: Research Funding; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Kite: Honoraria, Other: Travel expenses, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria, Other: Travel expenses; Seattle Genetics, Inc.: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel expenses, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Smith:AstraZeneca: Consultancy; Millenium/Takeda: Consultancy; Karyopharm: Consultancy; Beigene: Consultancy; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding; Ayala: Research Funding; Bayer: Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Research Funding; Acerta Pharma BV: Research Funding; Bristol Meyers Squibb: Research Funding; Portola: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Research Funding; Merck: Research Funding; Incyte: Research Funding; Ignyta: Research Funding; Genentech: Research Funding; De Novo Biopharma: Research Funding. Portell:Amgen: Consultancy; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy; AbbVie: Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy; TG Therapeutics: Research Funding; Bayer: Consultancy; BeiGene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Xencor: Research Funding; Kite: Consultancy, Research Funding; Acerta/AstraZeneca: Research Funding; Infinity: Research Funding; Roche/Genentech: Consultancy, Research Funding. Naik:Celgene: Other: advisory board; Sanofi: Other: advisory board. Lossos:Janssen Biotech: Honoraria; Verastem: Consultancy, Honoraria; Stanford University: Patents & Royalties; NCI: Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Other; Janssen Scientific: Consultancy, Other. Cwynarski:Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Support, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Support; Roche: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Support, Speakers Bureau; Gilead: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Atara: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; KITE: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Support, Speakers Bureau.

Author notes


Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.