Introduction: Since 2018, immunoenrichment-based matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), termed MASS-FIX, has replaced standard gel-based immunofixation for the detection and isotyping of serum monoclonal proteins at Mayo Clinic. MASS-FIX can readily identify N-glycosylation of involved light chains (LC N-glycosylation) by its unique, polytypic spectral pattern. LC N-glycosylation is identified more commonly in light chain amyloidosis (AL) than other plasma cell disorders (PCDs), and is associated with an increased risk of progression from MGUS to both AL and other PCDs (Dispenzieri et. al. Leukemia 2020). Herein, we report the mass spectral characteristics and distribution of diagnoses among 222 patients with LC N-glycosylation detected during a 20 month period in our clinical lab.

Methods: MASS-FIX was performed on patient samples as previously described (Kohlhagen et. al. Clin Chem Lab 2020). Demographics and laboratory data, including quantitative M-spike, serum free light chains (FLC), and quantitative immunoglobulins at the time of MASS-FIX were recorded. For patients with multiple samples during the study period, only the initial MASS-FIX was evaluated. 9195 unique patients had MASS-FIX performed from 7/24/2018 to 03/06/2020. Inclusion criteria for this retrospective study included: 1) consent for record review; 2) a monoclonal protein identified on MASS-FIX; 3) an underlying PCD. Patients were considered to have negative results (2211 in total) on MASS-FIX if: 1) no monoclonal protein was identified (1081, 49%); 2) the interpretation was "cannot rule out monoclonal protein" (945, 43%); 3) multiple, nonspecific spectral peaks were identified consistent with immune reconstitution (29, 1%); or 4) the only monoclonal protein identified was consistent with a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (156, 7%). The final positive cohort consisted of 4118 patients with definitive monoclonal proteins on MASS-FIX.

Results: Two-hundred and twenty-two (5%) of the 4118 patients with a positive MASS-FIX had LC N-glycosylation. 202 patients (91%) had FLC assays performed. Of these, 110 (54%) were kappa LC restricted, 22 (11%) were lambda restricted, and 70 (35%) were normal. A quantifiable M-spike was identified in 110 patients (85%) of 129 patients who had serum protein electrophoresis performed.

By MASS-FIX, 139 patients (63%) had an IgG isotype, 18 (8%) an IgA, and 55 (25%) an IgM. Two of these patients had a bi-clonal pattern in which both IgG kappa and IgM kappa LCs were N-glycosylated. 12 patients (5%) had monoclonal light chains with no corresponding heavy chain. Overall, 173 (78%) of 222 patients were kappa LC restricted and 44 (22%) were lambda. 189 patients (85%) had a monoclonal pattern, 18 (8%) had a bi-clonal pattern, and 3 (1%) had a tri-clonal pattern.

The most common PCD diagnoses for the 222 patients with LC N-glycosylation were MGUS (45%), multiple myeloma (MM) (31%), and immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) (8%). The percentage of MASS-FIX positive patients with LC N-glycosylation by diagnosis, stratified by kappa and lambda LC restriction, is illustrated in Figure 1. Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) had the highest relative percentage of patients with LC N-glycosylation, regardless of LC restriction. Eighteen AL patients (5%) had LC N-glycosylation; the percentage was higher in kappa restricted (13%) than lambda restricted AL patients (2%). Of note, LC N-glycosylation was not detected in patients with plasma cell leukemia, non-AL amyloidosis with associated MGUS, POEMS Syndrome or Castleman's Disease in this cross sectional sampling of patients.

Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrates that 5% of patients in a routine clinical setting with positive MASS-FIX have glycosylated LCs. Consistent with prior observations, CAD had the highest relative percentage of LC N-glycosylated patients. The percentage of AL patients with LC N-glycosylation in this cohort is lower than previously reported for newly diagnosed AL patients (Kumar et. al. Leukemia 2019), which is not surprising given that the current cohort study is a cross sectional evaluation of patients at various stages of diagnosis and treatment rather than a prevalence study. Further study will be done to exclude the presence of latent AL in patients with N-glycosylated LC and diagnoses of MGUS, SMM, MM, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

Disclosures

Gertz:Springer Publishing: Patents & Royalties; Proclara: Other; DAVA oncology: Speakers Bureau; Johnson and Johnson: Speakers Bureau; Teva: Speakers Bureau; Sanofi: Other; Research to Practice: Other; Celgene: Other; Abbvie: Other; Physicians Education Resource: Other: personal fee; Medscape: Other: personal fee, Speakers Bureau; Amgen: Other: personal fee; Appellis: Other: personal fee; Annexon: Other: personal fee; Spectrum: Other: personal fee, Research Funding; Janssen: Other: personal fee; Prothena: Other: personal fee; Alnylam: Other: personal fee; Ionis/Akcea: Other: personal fee; Aurora Bio: Other. Kumar:Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy, Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments, Research Funding; Carsgen: Other, Research Funding; Genentech/Roche: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; Dr. Reddy's Laboratories: Honoraria; Oncopeptides: Consultancy, Other: Independent Review Committee; IRC member; Merck: Consultancy, Research Funding; Janssen Oncology: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; Celgene/BMS: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; AbbVie: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; MedImmune: Research Funding; Genecentrix: Consultancy; Tenebio: Other, Research Funding; Karyopharm: Consultancy; BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding; Takeda: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; Sanofi: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; Kite Pharma: Consultancy, Research Funding; Cellectar: Other. Kapoor:Janssen: Research Funding; Sanofi: Consultancy, Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria, Research Funding; GlaxoSmithKline: Research Funding; Celgene: Honoraria; Cellectar: Consultancy. Dingli:Alexion: Consultancy; Karyopharm Therapeutics: Research Funding; Bristol Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy; Sanofi-Genzyme: Consultancy; Apellis: Consultancy; Rigel: Consultancy; Millenium: Consultancy. Lin:Janssen: Consultancy, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Bluebird Bio: Consultancy, Research Funding; Juno: Consultancy; Legend BioTech: Consultancy; Merck: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Gamida Cells: Consultancy; Sorrento: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Vineti: Consultancy; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Research Funding. Murray:The Binding Site: Patents & Royalties: Patent Use of Mass Spec to identify monoclonal proteins licensed to The Binding Site. Dispenzieri:Intellia: Research Funding; Pfizer: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Celgene: Research Funding; Janssen: Research Funding; Alnylam: Research Funding.

Author notes

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Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.