MCL is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with poor prognosis due to emergence of drug resistant populations and lymphoma progression. Ibrutinib is a bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor that was shown to have high response rates in MCL patients. However, as the use of this drug continues to grow in MCL and other B-cell lymphomas, emergence of resistance and fatal progression are of increasing clinical concern. Currently the mechanisms driving IR are poorly understood and no recurrent driver mutations have been identified in MCL. We have modeled acquired resistance to ibrutinib and implemented chemical proteomics and a cell-based drug screen approaches in IR MCL lines and primary samples, we have shown that MCL cells become resistant to ibrutinib through a kinome-adaptive reprogramming mechanism that lead to constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway with increased levels of Myc and sustained transcription activation. The acquired IR MCL cells have increased rates of growth and augmented adhesion to stromal cells. Collectively, our published and preliminary studies indicate that IR MCL relies on global transcriptome remodeling and subsequent kinome reprogramming, leading to molecularly and clinically aggressive phenotype and resistance to ibrutinib therapy. Rather than there being a single mechanism of acquired IR, kinase networks are rewired in a plethora of ways in MCL cells as they become resistant to ibrutinib treatment. Adaptive remodeling of the kinome creates therapeutic challenges, where even combination targeted kinase inhibitor treatments are unlikely to be successful. Here, using genomic, chemical proteomic and drug screen profiling, we report that enhancer remodeling-mediated transcriptional activation and adaptive signaling changes drive the aggressive phenotypes of IR. Accordingly, IR MCL cells are vulnerable to inhibitors of the transcriptional machinery and especially so to inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), the catalytic subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Further, CDK9 inhibition disables reprogrammed signaling circuits and prevents the emergence of IR in MCL. Finally and importantly, we provided that a novel and facile ex vivo image-based functional drug screening platform could predict clinical therapeutic responses of IR MCL and identified vulnerabilities that can be targeted to disable the evolution of IR.
Shain:Amgen: Speakers Bureau; GlaxoSmithKline: Speakers Bureau; Adaptive: Consultancy, Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Sanofi/Genzyme: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; AbbVie: Research Funding; Karyopharm: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Shah:Kite/Gilead, Jazz, Incyte: Research Funding; Kite/Gilead, Celgene/Juno/BMS, Novartis, Pfizer, Amgen, Spectrum/Acrotech, Precision Biosciences, Beigene, AstraZeneca, Pharmacyclics/Jansen, Adaptive: Honoraria; NCCN: Vice-Chair, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Working Group: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Kite/Gilead, Precision Biosciences, Novartis, AstraZeneca: Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES; Moffitt Cancer Center: Current Employment.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.