Approximately 10% of acute leukemia involves rearrangement at chromosome 11q23, giving rise to a relatively aggressive form of acute leukemia characterized by MLL1 (KMT2A) fusion proteins. Despite the identification of >100 MLL1 fusion partners, the majority are members of several similar transcriptional activation complexes including: The Super Elongation Complex (SEC), AEP and EAP (SEC used hereafter). MLL fusion-driven acute leukemia is characterized by deregulated activity of the SEC and the H3K79 methyltransferase DOT1L. This leads to altered epigenetic landscapes at and deregulated transcription of pro-leukemic MLL1-fusion target genes like HoxA9 and Meis1. Thus, targeting these transcriptional and epigenetic complexes has become an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating MLL-fusion leukemia.
Eleven-Nineteen-Leukemia (ENL or MLLT1) is the third most common MLL1 fusion partner and a component of the SEC. Recently, wild type ENL was identified as an essential factor for leukemic cell growth. The ENL protein possesses a C-terminal ANC-homology domain (AHD) necessary for SEC recruitment and is essential for MLL-fusion mediated leukemogenesis. In addition, ENL contains a highly conserved N-terminal YEATS domain that functions as an epigenetic reader for acetylated H3K9, H3K18 or H3K27, which is essential for leukemic cell growth. Additionally, the ENL YEATS domain directly interacts with the Polymerase Associated Factor 1 complex (PAF1c), an epigenetic regulator protein complex essential for MLL-fusion mediated leukemogenesis. These studies highlight the importance of the YEATS domain in regulating wild type ENL function in leukemic cells. However, the importance of the YEATS domain in the context of MLL-ENL mediated leukemia remains to be elucidated.
In this study, we investigate the clinical relevance and leukemic importance of the ENL YEATS domain in MLL-ENL leukemias. We first analyzed t(11;19) (MLL-ENL) patient data to determine the sites of chromosomal translocation within the ENL gene. We found that the YEATS domain (coded by exons 2 through 4) is retained in 84.1% of MLL-ENL patients (n=302). Specifically, 50.7% (n=153) of these patients possess breakpoints located 5' of the first exon of the ENL gene, while 33.4% (n=101) of the patients display breakpoints within the first intron of ENL gene. These data point towards a tendency for YEATS domain retention in MLL-ENL fusion proteins in t(11;19) patients. We next tested whether the YEATS domain was functional in MLL-ENL mouse leukemia models. Our data shows the YEATS domain is required for MLL-ENL leukemogenesis in vivo, as deletion of the YEATS domain destroys MLL-ENL leukemogenesis and increases apoptosis in cell culture. Transcriptionally, deletion of the YEATS domain decreased expression of pro-leukemic genes such as Meis1 and the anti-apoptotic gene Bclxl. To dissect the contribution of different YEATS domain functions in MLL-ENL leukemogenesis, we engineered YEATS domain mutants defective in interacting with PAF1 or acetylated H3K9/K18/K27. Disrupting the YEATS-PAF1 or YEATS-H3Kac interaction decreased MLL-ENL mediated colony formation exvivo and significantly increased leukemia latency in vivo. The MLL-ENL YEATS domain mutants will be used in future studies to determine how the YEATS domain affects 1) MLL-ENL fusion localization, 2) key protein complexes localization (i.e. SEC and PAF1c) and 3) the epigenetic landscapes (i.e. H3K79me2/3 and H3K4me3) at pro-leukemic targets.
To further interrogate the YEATS-PAF1 interaction in MLL-ENL mediated leukemia, we identified the minimal region of the PAF1 protein required for the YEATS-PAF1 interaction. This PAF1 protein fragment will be used to biochemically characterize the structure of the PAF1-YEATS interaction, which might aid in therapeutically targeting specific YEATS interactions in MLL-ENL leukemia.
Our results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, an essential role for the YEATS domain in MLL-ENL mediated leukemogenesis. Additionally, our genetic studies elucidate the importance of the YEATS domain interaction with either the PAF1c or H3Kac in MLL-ENL leukemias. Taken together, our study establishes a rationale for exploring the effectiveness of small molecule development aimed at disrupting either the YEATS-H3Kac or the YEATS-PAF1 interaction as a therapeutic intervention for treating MLL-ENL leukemia patients.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.