Upregulation of tumor CD47, the "don't eat me" signal, to evade immune surveillance is a common escape mechanism that evolves during cancer development, progression, and relapse. Previous studies have shown multiple myeloma (MM) cells leverage this mechanism through broad upregulation of CD47 compared to non-malignant plasma cells, making CD47 an attractive therapeutic target for this disease. We recently reported that AO-176, a clinical stage humanized anti-CD47 IgG2 antibody, possesses differentiated characteristics such as preferential binding of tumor cells compared to normal cells, a lack of binding to red blood cells, non-ADCC direct tumor killing and elicits immunogenic cell death with DAMP induction, all in addition to single-agent phagocytosis. In this study, AO-176's anti-tumor activity in MM was evaluated. Immunohistochemical analyses of MM patient tumors with upregulated CD47 expression showed infiltration of innate immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, both previously shown to be involved in anti-CD47 antibody mechanisms of action. AO-176 binding was confirmed on human cell lines frequently used in MM xenograft models. AO-176 exerted substantial single agent in vivo anti-tumor activity in multiple MM xenograft models when dosed at 25 mg/kg, including significant tumor growth inhibition of RPMI-8226 xenografted mice, and complete responses (CRs) in (10/10) NCI-H929 xenografted mice. These CRs were durable, with treated mice tumor-free up to 120 days post antibody dosing. Immunohistochemical analysis of AO-176 treated tumors from both models showed increased numbers of macrophages and dendritic cells compared to controls. An AO-176 dose response study resulted in CRs and increases in overall survival down to 10 mg/kg, with CRs observed as low as 3 mg/kg during dosing. In addition, we found that large NCI-H929 tumors (up to 1600mm3) showed pronounced regression after AO-176 treatment. The anti-tumor activity of AO-176 was also evaluated in combination with several standard of care MM therapies. When combined with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, AO-176 treatment at both 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg resulted in profound RPMI-8226 xenograft growth inhibition, near-total CRs (19/20 mice), and extended survival at both doses. Combining AO-176 and the anti-CD38 antibody daratumumab or immunomodulatory drugs (lenalidomide/pomalidomide) both produced significant enhancement of anti-tumor activity in xenograft models. The combined regimen of AO-176 with daratumumab led to significant MM.1S tumor growth inhibition compared to AO-176 or daratumumab alone. Both lenalidomide and pomalidomide combined with AO-176 resulted in significantly increased MM.1S tumor growth inhibition and extended survival compared to AO-176 alone, with an increased number of CRs observed in the combination groups compared to monotherapy groups. In summary, the pre-clinical potent single agent activity and enhanced activity when combined with standard of care anti-MM agents, warrants further development of AO-176 in MM treatment. AO-176 is being evaluated in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of patients with solid tumors (NCT03834948) and with MM (NCT04445701).

Disclosures

Wilson:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Richards:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Puro:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Andrejeva:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Capoccia:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Donio:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Hiebsch:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Chakraborty:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Sung:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Pereira:Arch Oncology: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company.

Author notes

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Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.