Moyamoya disease, well described in literature, is a chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disorder. It is characterized by progressive stenosis/occlusion of the terminal portions of the internal carotid arteries (ICA) and the proximal portions of the middle cerebral arteries (MCA). Less frequently described is Moyamoya syndrome, the name given to radiographic findings consistent with Moyamoya disease, but with an identifiable cause. The diseases associated with Moyamoya Syndrome include Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), Thalassemias, and Down's Syndrome to name a few. Common complications of Moyamoya include both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Upon literature review, Moyamoya syndrome caused by SCD is not well described. When it is, the discussion is centered around the pediatric patient population and surgical management. Our case report describes a 22-year-old African American female with SCD who initially presented with Acute Chest Syndrome. Her hospital course was complicated by development of overt debilitating neurologic deficits. Subsequently, she was found to have Moyamoya Syndrome on neuroimaging. She was successfully treated with medical management without any surgical intervention. This case highlights the necessity of thorough examination, differential diagnosis, imaging findings, and consideration of predisposing syndromes in the work-up for Moyamoya syndrome; especially individuals with Sickle Cell Disease.


No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

Author notes


Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.