Red blood cell disorders like Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and β-thalassemias are caused by mutations within the gene for the hemoglobin β (HBβ) subunit. A fetal ortholog of HBβ, hemoglobin γ (HBγ) can prevent or reduce disease-related pathophysiology in these disorders by forming nonpathogenic complexes with the required hemoglobin α subunit. Globin expression is developmentally regulated, with a reduction in production of the fetal ortholog (γ) occurring shortly after birth and a concomitant increase in the levels of the adult ortholog (β). It has been postulated that maintaining expression of the anti-sickling γ ortholog may be of therapeutic benefit in children and adults with SCD. Indeed, individuals with the SCD mutation who also have genetic variants that maintain HBγ expression and the resulting fetal hemoglobin (HbF) tetramer at clinically meaningful levels do not present with SCD-related symptoms.
Parallel target identification efforts using CRISPR and the Fulcrum proprietary, annotated chemical probe screening set in HUDEP2 cells identified a protein complex as a key regulator of HbF expression. Structure-guided medicinal chemistry optimization led to the design of FTX-6058, a novel, potent and selective small molecule. FTX-6058 treatment of differentiated primary CD34+ cells from multiple healthy donors demonstrated target engagement and potent upregulation of HBG1/2 mRNA and HbF protein. Across multiple healthy and SCD donors, FTX-6058 treatment resulted in a clinically desirable globin profile (e.g., up to approximately 30% HbF) accompanied by pancellular HbF expression, resembling the phenotype of SCD mutation carriers with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. FTX-6058 demonstrated a superior pharmacological profile relative to hydroxyurea and other small molecule compounds whose putative mechanism of action is to induce HbF.
Preclinical studies using a variety of in vitro assays have demonstrated the potential of FTX-6058 as a clinical development candidate for potential treatment of hemoglobinopathies, such as SCD and ꞵ-thalassemia, via upregulation of HbF. IND enabling studies for FTX-6058 have been completed.
Keywords: hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin, HbF, HBG1/2, sickle cell disease, gene regulation
Stuart:Fulcrum Therapeutics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Rahl:Fulcrum Therapeutics: Ended employment in the past 24 months. Appiah:Fulcrum Therapeutics: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Ended employment in the past 24 months. Efremov:Fulcrum Therepeutics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Thompson:Fulcrum Therepeutics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Wallace:Fulcrum Therepeutics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Moxham:Fulcrum Therapeutics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.