Introduction: Concizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). Concizumab is currently in clinical development as a subcutaneous prophylactic therapy for hemophilia A and B patients with and without inhibitors. Breakthrough bleeding episodes experienced by inhibitor patients while on concizumab prophylaxis may be treated with the bypassing agents recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven®) or activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC; FEIBA®).
Aim: To investigate the in vitro effect of rFVIIa and aPCC on hemophilia A plasma containing concizumab using a thrombin generation assay and pooled plasma spiked with concizumab or samples from patients treated prophylactically with concizumab.
Methods: Pooled hemophilia A plasma was spiked with concizumab at 1, 3 and 10 nM and patient plasma samples from explorer4 (n=16; hemophilia with inhibitors; NCT03196284) and explorer5 (n=30; hemophilia A; NCT03196297) before and during concizumab prophylaxis at steady state exposure levels were assessed. Samples were spiked with rFVIIa (25 or 75 nM) or aPCC (0.25, 0.5 or 1 U/mL), and analyzed using a thrombin generation assay initiated with tissue factor (PPP-Low, Thrombinoscope). The effects of rFVIIa or aPCC in the absence or presence of concizumab were compared using ANOVA methodology.
Results: Addition of rFVIIa or aPCC to hemophilia A plasma with or without inhibitors increased peak thrombin generation both in the absence and presence of concizumab. A significant additional effect of rFVIIa and aPCC was observed for all concizumab concentrations spiked to the plasma pool. Overall, the effects of the combination of concizumab and rFVIIa or aPCC were mainly additive; however, a small but statistically significant drug-drug interaction was observed for rFVIIa (25 nM or 75 nM) and aPCC (0.5 U/ml or 1 U/mL) in the presence of 10 nM concizumab. At this concizumab concentration, the additive effect of aPCC corresponded to 68% of the total observed effect and the additive effect of rFVIIa to 85% of the total observed effect. At lower concizumab concentrations (1 and 3 nM), statistically significant drug-drug effects were only observed in combination with aPCC. No excessive thrombin generation above the level obtained with 1 IU/mL recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) was observed at 1 nM concizumab combined with either rFVIIa (25 and 75 nM) or aPCC 0.5 U/mL. However, addition of 1 U/mL aPCC to 1 nM concizumab resulted in a thrombin peak modestly above the upper 95% confidence interval of the rFVIII range.
In the experiments using plasma from patients treated with concizumab, the increase in thrombin peak upon addition of rFVIIa was within or below the range observed by spiking with 1 IU/mL rFVIII. The increase in thrombin peak upon addition of aPCC was within or above the rFVIII range. The effects of concizumab and rFVIIa or aPCC were mainly additive; however, a small, statistically significant contribution caused by drug-drug interaction was observed for concizumab and rFVIIa (75 nM) in both plasma from patients with and without inhibitors, and for 1 U/mL aPCC in plasma from patients with inhibitors. The additive effects of concizumab and rFVIIa corresponded to between 60% (25 nM rFVIIa, plasma without inhibitors) and 75% (75 nM rFVIIa, inhibitor plasma), and the additive effects of concizumab and 1 U/mL aPCC corresponded to 77% of the total observed effects.
Conclusions: Addition of rFVIIa or aPCC to hemophilia A plasma with or without inhibitors increased peak thrombin generation as expected both in the absence and presence of concizumab. Thus, the bypassing agents function as expected in plasma containing concizumab. The effects of concizumab and rFVIIa or aPCC were mainly additive. A small but statistically significant contribution was synergistic in accordance with the concizumab mechanism of action (Hilden I et al, Blood, 2012). These in vitro results support the concomitant use of bypassing agents to treat breakthrough bleeding episodes in hemophilia with inhibitor patients on concizumab prophylactic treatment.
Kjalke:Novo Nordisk A/S: Employment, Honoraria. Kjelgaard-Hansen:Novo Nordisk A/S: Employment, Equity Ownership. Andersen:Novo Nordisk A/S: Employment, Equity Ownership, Honoraria. Hilden:Novo Nordisk A/S: Employment, Equity Ownership, Patents & Royalties.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.