Introduction: Midostaurin, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), plus induction and consolidation chemotherapy followed by single-agent midostaurin maintenance therapy resulted in significant benefits in event-free and overall survival (OS) in adults with newly diagnosed FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with placebo (RATIFY study; Stone et al, N Engl J Med, 2017). In RATIFY, patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) did not receive midostaurin maintenance. Despite alloSCT providing the highest likelihood of sustained remission, relapse rates remain high (30%-59%; Schiller et al, Biol Blood Marrow Transplant, 2016), especially in patients with FLT3-internal tandem duplication-positive (ITD+) AML. Posttransplant maintenance therapy may improve this outcome. Here, we report the primary results from RADIUS, a randomized, open-label, phase 2 exploratory trial (NCT01883362) that investigated whether the addition of midostaurin to standard of care (SOC) after alloSCT could reduce the risk of relapse in patients with FLT3-ITD+ AML.
Methods: Adults (aged 18-70 y) who had undergone myeloablative alloSCT in first complete remission (CR1), had achieved hematologic recovery, and were transfusion independent were eligible. Patients enrolled postengraftment and were randomized to receive SOC with or without midostaurin 50 mg twice daily continuously (4-week cycles) for up to 12 cycles. Study treatment started 28 to 60 days post-alloSCT and patients were followed for ≥24 months post-alloSCT. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival (RFS) at 18 months post-alloSCT. Secondary endpoints included safety and disease-free survival (DFS), OS, and RFS at 24 months post-alloSCT. The study was not adequately powered to detect a statistical difference between the 2 arms; a sample size of 60 was calculated to detect a 50% reduction in the risk of relapse.
Results: 60 patients were randomized (30 per arm). Baseline characteristics were generally balanced between the 2 arms. Overall, 30 patients completed 12 cycles of study treatment (14 with SOC; 16 with midostaurin). The median exposure to midostaurin was 10.5 months (range, 0.2 to 12.0 months) and the median dose intensity was 93 mg/day (range, 15-100 mg/day). Early treatment discontinuations were similar between arms (15 in the SOC arm; 13 in the midostaurin arm), frequently due to adverse events (AEs; 3% vs 23%) and consent withdrawal (20% vs 7%). Among 6 patients who withdrew consent in the SOC arm, 2 did so to pursue other TKI therapies. Midostaurin dose modifications occurred in 19 patients (63%), mostly due to AEs (84%); 1 instance was due to receiving a concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitor.
With an estimated 18-month RFS (95% CI) of 76% (54%-88%) in the SOC arm and 89% (69%-96%) in the midostaurin arm, estimated relapse rates were 24% and 11%, respectively, which is a 46% relative reduction in the risk of relapse with the addition of midostaurin (Figure 1). At 18 months, the median RFS was not reached in either arm. Longer follow-up at 24 months (data not yet matured) will be presented, including RFS, OS, and DFS.
In the SOC and midostaurin arms, AEs were reported in 87% and 100% of patients, respectively (the most common any-grade AE was vomiting: 23% vs 73%; Figure 2); serious AEs were reported in 57% and 30% of patients, respectively, with diarrhea (7% vs 13%), nausea (10% vs 3%), vomiting (10% vs 3%), and pyrexia (7% vs 7%) being the most common. Overall, 8 patients discontinued midostaurin therapy due to AEs (mostly gastrointestinal related) and 12 died on study (all during the follow-up phase; 8 in the SOC arm and 4 in the midostaurin arm [n=4 vs n=2 due to AML disease progression]).
Rates of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) were generally similar between the SOC and midostaurin arms (overall, 70% vs 73%; acute GVHD, 53% vs 57% [grade 2/3 events: 37% vs 30%; no grade 4 events]; chronic GVHD, 47% vs 37% [most events were mild or moderate; severe events: 1 with SOC and 2 with midostaurin]).
Conclusions: Adding midostaurin to SOC reduced the risk of relapse at 18 months post-alloSCT by 46% (vs SOC). The safety profile of single-agent midostaurin was consistent with previous reports; no major safety concerns were identified when adding midostaurin to SOC following alloSCT. These data suggest that midostaurin monotherapy can be safely administered for ≤1 year and may improve outcomes in patients who undergo alloSCT in CR1.
Maziarz:Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Incyte: Consultancy, Honoraria; Juno Therapeutics: Consultancy, Honoraria; Kite Therapeutics: Honoraria; Athersys, Inc.: Patents & Royalties. Scott:Agios: Consultancy; Novartis: Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Alexion: Consultancy. Deol:Kite Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy. Kim:Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Briston-Meyers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Paladin: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy. Haines:Novartis: Employment. Bonifacio:Novartis: Employment. Rine:Novartis: Employment. Purkayastha:Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation: Employment.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.
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