Introduction: T-cell lymphoma (TCL) accounts approximately 15% of all Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases. TCL are often divided into either systemic or cutaneous TCL (CTCL). The management of TCL systemic or cutaneous is challenging because the emergence of chemotherapy resistance that lead to early death (systemic T-cell lymphomas) or chronic debilitating clinical course (CTCL). To improve the clinical outcomes and reduce treatment-related toxicity, research need to be done focusing on understanding and targeting the molecular mechanism driving TCL subtypes. Recently, studies showed that the PI3K AKT/mTOR pathway was activated in TCL. GSK458 is a potent oral dual inhibitor of pan PI3K (α, β, γ and δ) and mTOR (mTOR1 and mTOR2). Preclinical studies in B-cell lymphomas showed GSK458 had broad antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In 2016, Phase I clinical trial of GSK458 was competed at the maximal dosage of 2.5mg twice daily. However, the effects of GSK458 on T-cell malignancies remain utterly unknown. Here, we evaluated the activity of GSK458 in preclinical T cell lymphoma models. Methods: We used a panel of T-cell lymphoma cell lines representing PTCL (J45), T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (SupT-1), and Mycosis Fungoides (MF)(MJ, HH and H9). TCL cell lines were exposed to escalating doses of GSK458 (1nM-100µM) without or with chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, and dexamethasone); Bcl-2 inhibitor (Venetoclax); proteasome inhibitors ( bortezomib, carfilzomib, Ixazomib); or HDAC inhibitors (SAHA) for 48 and 72 hrs. Differences in cell viability, ATP levels, low mitochondria potential, glucose update, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated utilizing PrestoBlue, Cell-Titer Glo assays, DiOC6, 2-NDG, Annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. IC50 was calculated by GraphPad. PI3K and mTOR downstream pathway phosphorylation status, such as p-AKT Ser473, p-AKT Thr308, p-mTOR and p-GSK3β were detected by internally staining of FITC conjugated-antibodies followed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis proteins (MCL-1, PARP, p53, XIAP etc.) were detected by western blot. The additive/synergistic activity of GSK458 was detected by presto blue assay and Coefficient of synergy was calculated using CalcuSyn. Results:In vitro exposure of TCL cell lines to GSK458 demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent cell death. The IC50 of the cells were ranged from 3nM to 1.05uM at 72 hours. At 72h, GSK458 10nM lowered cellular mitochondrial potential, ATP levels and glucose uptake. GSK458 induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at G1. At molecular level, GSK458 reduced phosphorylation status of AKT ser473 and Thr308, mTOR and GSK3β. Interestingly, GSK458 inhibited Mcl-1 expression level. GSK458 exhibited synergistic activity when combined with doxorubicin and dexamethasone. To a lesser degree, GSK458 enhanced the anti-tumor activity of Venetoclax, proteasome and HDAc inhibitors. Conclusion: GSK458 is active as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy agents or small molecule inhibitors in a variety of T-cell pre-clinical models representing forms of systemic or cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. GSK458 was able to inhibit phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and GSK3β, which may be the mechanism to reduce ATP production and glucose uptake in the cancer cells. Moreover, GSK458 arrested cell cycle at G1 arrest. Our data supports the clinical evaluation of GSK458 in relapsed/refractory T-cell lymphoma patients. (Supported by Roswell Park Cancer Institute Alliance Foundation Grant)
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.