Nucleoside analogues such as cladribine can increase the efficacy of cytarabine (araC) by modulating deoxycytidine kinase. The addition of cladribine to standard 7+3 chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival in pts with AML (Holowiecki JCO 2012). Results of our part-1 phase-2 clinical trial (cladribine combined with intermediate dose araC and idarubicin (CLIA1)) reported promising results that exceeded pretreatment expectations for response and tolerability (Jain, et. al. ASH 2016). Based on that, and the benefit of higher doses of cytarabine in younger patients (UK-MRC AML, Willemze JCO 2014), we investigated a higher dose of araC in combination with cladribine and idarubicin (CLIA2).


Non-APL, non-core binding factor AML pts 18-65 yrs of age with adequate organ function were enrolled in 1 of 3 cohorts: de novo AML, secondary AML (s-AML), or relapsed/refractory AML (R/R). Induction was cladribine 5 mg/m2 IV over 30 minutes on days 1-5, followed by araC 2g/m2 IV on days 1-5, and idarubicin 10 mg/m2 IV days 1-3. Consolidation consisted of up to 5 more cycles of CLIA2 for 3 days instead of 5. Dose-adjustments were allowed for age and PS. Sorafenib or midostaurin was added for pts with FLT3 mutations which occurred in 35% of pts on this study. Prophylactic intrathecal therapy was offered to higher risk pts at count nadir during cycle 1. Mutation profiling was performed using next generation sequencing prior to starting therapy.


65 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 47 yrs (range, 24-65): 37 pts (57%) in the frontline, 12 (19%) pts in the s-AML, and 16 (25%) in the R/R cohorts. Pt characteristics and outcomes by cohort are outlined in Table 1. The most commonly detected mutations at baseline were TET2 (45%), DNMT3a (37%), FLT3 (35%), ASXL1 (28%), and NPM1 (28%). Of 35 evaluable pts in the frontline cohort, 31 responded (ORR=89%) with 27 CR (77%) and 4 CRi (11%). Among the responders, 61% were negative for minimal residual disease (MRD [-]) by multiparameter flow cytometry. In the s-AML cohort, 10 pts were evaluable with an ORR of 60% (6/10) with 5 CR (50%) and 1 CRp (10%); 4 (67%) were MRD [-]. In the R/R cohort, 14 pts, previously treated with a median of 1 (1-4) prior therapy were evaluable for response. There were 7 CR (50%), 1 CRi (7%), for ORR of 57%; and 63% were MRD [-].

The median OS was not reached in the frontline and s-AML cohorts with median follow up of 5.2 and 11.5, months, respectively. In the R/R cohort, the median follow up was 4.7 months and median OS was 6.7 months [Figure.1]. Relapse-free survival was not reached in frontline and salvage cohort, and was 9.1 months in s-AML with median follow up of 5.2, 3.9, and 3.5 months in frontline, s-AML, and salvage cohorts, respectively [Figure.2]. The regimen was well tolerated. The most common ≥ grade 3 possibly-related non-hematologic adverse events were fever/infection (38), bleeding (2), and abnormal liver function test (3).


The 3-drug combination with a higher dose of araC, CLIA2, is safe and effective in younger pts with AML. Compared to our prior experience in pts with s-AML, using higher dose of cytarabine in CLIA2 for this cohort seems to have the highest impact. This trend however was also seen in the salvage and frontline cohorts when compared to the results from CLIA1. Response rates for pts in the newly-diagnosed AML, s-AML, and in the salvage settings are promising and should be explored further in larger studies and compared to current standard regimens.


Ravandi:Jazz: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Astellas Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Honoraria; Sunesis: Honoraria; Sunesis: Honoraria; Macrogenix: Honoraria, Research Funding; Orsenix: Honoraria; Jazz: Honoraria; Xencor: Research Funding; Astellas Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Honoraria; Xencor: Research Funding; Macrogenix: Honoraria, Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding; Abbvie: Research Funding; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Orsenix: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding; Abbvie: Research Funding. Konopleva:Stemline Therapeutics: Research Funding. Daver:Otsuka: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy; Incyte: Research Funding; Kiromic: Research Funding; Daiichi-Sankyo: Research Funding; Incyte: Consultancy; Novartis: Research Funding; ImmunoGen: Consultancy; Alexion: Consultancy; Sunesis: Consultancy; Pfizer: Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy; Karyopharm: Consultancy; Sunesis: Research Funding; BMS: Research Funding; ARIAD: Research Funding; Karyopharm: Research Funding. DiNardo:Bayer: Honoraria; Karyopharm: Honoraria; Abbvie: Honoraria; Celgene: Honoraria; Medimmune: Honoraria; Agios: Consultancy. Bose:Constellation Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Incyte Corporation: Honoraria, Research Funding; Astellas Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Blueprint Medicines Corporation: Research Funding; Celgene Corporation: Honoraria, Research Funding; CTI BioPharma: Research Funding; Pfizer, Inc.: Research Funding. Andreeff:SentiBio: Equity Ownership; Jazz Pharma: Consultancy; Oncoceutics: Equity Ownership, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Eutropics: Equity Ownership, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Consultancy, Research Funding; Astra Zeneca: Research Funding; Oncolyze: Equity Ownership; Celgene: Consultancy; Aptose: Equity Ownership, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Reata: Equity Ownership; Daiichi-Sankyo: Consultancy, Patents & Royalties: MDM2 inhibitor activity patent, Research Funding; United Therapeutics: Patents & Royalties: GD2 inhibition in breast cancer . Pemmaraju:abbvie: Research Funding; cellectis: Research Funding; samus: Research Funding; SagerStrong Foundation: Research Funding; stemline: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; novartis: Research Funding; plexxikon: Research Funding; daiichi sankyo: Research Funding; Affymetrix: Research Funding; celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria. Jabbour:novartis: Research Funding. Cortes:novartis: Research Funding. Kadia:Abbvie: Consultancy; BMS: Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy; Celgene: Research Funding; Celgene: Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding; Jazz: Consultancy, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy; Abbvie: Consultancy; BMS: Research Funding; Jazz: Consultancy, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy, Research Funding.

Author notes


Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.

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