Germ line (GL) alterations of telomerase machinery genes may lead to inherited telomeropathies, but recent analysis of large control populations revealed that some of the previously assumed pathologic variants are present in comparable frequencies in healthy individuals. Pathogenic telomerase gene variants can be found, but are rare in idiopathic aplastic anemia (AA) and are associated with excessive telomere attrition. Previously, in a cohort of patients with MDS, pathogenic germ line variants of telomerase genes were very extremely rare.
Recently a patient with bone marrow failure and liver cirrhosis presented with a biallelic CTC1 gene mutation. CTC1 is a member of the CTC complex, located on Chr 17p13.1, and critical for telomere replication. GL alterations of this gene were found to cause inherited disease, including Coats plus (CP), dyskeratosis congenital (DC) and cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC) in a compound heterozygous manner. Our patient (age 28) had compound heterozygous CTC1 germline mutations (p.Lys242Leufs*41 and p.Cys985del) resulting in early childhood presentation of DC, subsequent severe AA at the age of 19, and a significant shortening of telomeres. Both parents as confirmed CTC1 variant carriers showed normal blood counts.
Based on this index case and literature reports, manifest CTC1 diseases follow a recessive trait, however, but it is possible that heterozygous carriers may indeed have also an increased, albeit attenuated risk of BMF leading to a later manifestation or incomplete penetrance. To test this possible scenario we screened a cohort of acquired BMF (n=538) with AA/PNH (172), MDS/AML (n=366), with deep NGS of all coding regions of CTC1. In total, we identified 10 heterozygous CTC1 variants in 10 unrelated patients (8 AA/PNH and 2 MDS); 4/10 variants (1 stop gain R1202X and 3 frameshift deletions D405fs, P999fs, E454fs) were fulfilled the criteria of Tier-1 lesions and were found in AA/PNH patients (4/172, 2.3%), The remaining 6 missense variants were of uncertain significance or likely benign(Tier-2), 2 of which (H1092G and E1136K) were found in a compound heterozygous configuration in a AA/PNH patient. K438N, as a novel missense variant, was recurrently present in 2 MDS pts. Given the expected frequency of the CTC1 variants found in controls (104/33370, 0.3%), CTC1 variants appear to be enriched in AA/PNH subgroup (p<0.001). Of note is that none of the carriers of pathogenic CTC1 mutations showed any physical signs of inherited congenital BMF syndromes or any family history of leukemia, BMF and any other cancers. Interestingly, patients with sAA/PNH syndrome and biallelic CTC1 variant eventually evolved to MDS, while the other monoallelic CTC1 carriers showed stable disease and responsed to immunosuppression. Flow cytometric telomere length measurement (adjusted for age) showed a markedly shortened telomere in the index case, as well as 1 SAA case carrying biallelic CTC1 variants and 1 AA case with co-concurrent POT1 and CTC1 variants when compared with age matched controls. A significant difference was seen when comparing telomere length between CTC1 variants carriers and age-matched normal controls, while no difference was seen among CTC1 variants carriers, AA/PNH group without any variants.
Because of the curious co-incidence of heterozygous CTC1 variants and AA/PNH, we further analyzed this subgroup for the presence of other telomerase gene mutations, 11/172 Tier-1 variants, while 6 Tier-1 GLVs detected in MDS. Most frequent SNVs were found in POT1 with 5/172 (3%) in AA/PNH and 3/366 (0.8%) in MDS/AML. Notably, in one AA/PNH patient POT1 stop gain variant (Q364X) was co-concurrent with CTC1 heterozygous frame shift deletion (P999fs). The enrichment of variants in TELO-related genes in AA/PNH subgroup was found in comparison to MDS/AML (p<.01) and ExAC database controls (p<.01). Further clinical phenotype analysis indicated that 3 AA/PNH cases harboring POT1, TINF2 and TERT Tier-1 variants had family history of cancer. Family history of cancer was also found in a MDS patient with a TINF2 variant.
In sum, our results indicate that heterozygous CTC1 variants were associated with otherwise typical AA with clonal outgrowth of PNH clone and the presence of this variant does not seem to preclude response to immunosuppression.
Maciejewski:Ra Pharmaceuticals, Inc: Consultancy; Ra Pharmaceuticals, Inc: Consultancy; Apellis Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Apellis Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.