Introduction: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired platelet disorder that is often caused by antibodies against platelet's antigens. Steroids are effective first therapy for ITP. Steroid-refractory ITP is rare and warrant further investigation and treatment. While iron deficiency anemia (IDA) usually presents with thrombocytosis, there are a few reported cases of IDA presenting with unexplained ITP.
Objective: We aim to determine whether the use of intravenous (IV) iron improves platelet count in patients with concomitant steroid-refractory ITP and IDA.
Methods: We identified five patients with IDA who presented to the St. John Hospital and Medical Center between 1/2010 and 12/2017 with unexplained profound thrombocytopenia. They were initially treated with steroids without success. All patients were then treated with a single infusion of iron dextran to replenish their iron stores.
Results: All five patients were African American females of childbearing age and with a history of menorrhagia. All patients had profound iron deficiency defined as iron saturation less than 20% and ferritin less than 15 ng/dL. Four of these patients had profound thrombocytopenia defined as platelets count below 30,000/mm3(table 1). Other causes of thrombocytopenia were ruled out. With IV iron, all patients achieved complete and durable resolution of their thrombocytopenia lasting for at least 6 months (table 2).
Conclusion: The exact mechanism of thrombocytopenia that occurs in patients with IDA is unknown. However, it is suggested that it may be related to the alteration in the activity of iron-dependent enzymes in the cells responsible for megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. We suggest that patients who present with concomitant steroid-refractory ITP and IDA should receive a trial of IV iron before proceeding with more aggressive therapy such as splenectomy.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.