Background: Intravascular hemolysis, a major complication of sickle cell anemia and malaria among other diseases, incurs the release of excessive quantities of hemoglobin and heme from red blood cells. If not adequately sequestered by hemoglobin- and heme-binding proteins, these molecules may incur oxidative stress, thrombosis and cellular activation. Heme is now recognized as a red cell DAMP (damage-associated molecular pattern) that stimulates inflammasome formation in macrophages and can induce neutrophil extracellular trap release under certain circumstances. Aim: This study evaluated the in vitro effects of heme on the adhesive properties of human neutrophils. Methods: Neutrophils were separated from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals and their adhesion in the presence/absence of heme was compared by static adhesion assays using myeloperoxidase, for quantification of cell adhesion (30 min, 37oC, 5% CO2). Results: Heme (50 µM) significantly increased the adhesion of neutrophils to fibronectin (FN) and to recombinant ICAM-1 (an endothelial ligand), when compared to non-treated neutrophils (43.7±4.6%; 10.9±21.4 %, respectively, n=5, P<0.001 for FN and 38.1±3.6%; 6.9±0.8%, respectively, n=6, P<0.001 for ICAM-1). Interestingly, heme induced neutrophil adhesion even more efficiently than the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α (200 ng/ml) (35.5±5.2% adhesion to FN, n=6, P<0.05). Furthermore, inhibition of the NFκB transcription factor with the pharmacological inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 (20 μM), abolished heme-stimulated neutrophils adhesion to FN (reduced from 41.8±6.7% to 7.4±0.5%. n=6; P<0.001). Flow cytometry demonstrated that while TNF-α significantly increases the expression of the Mac-1 integrin subunit, CD11b (data not shown, P<0.05), but not the LFA-1 integrin subunit CD11a (data not shown, P>0.05), on the surface of neutrophils, heme did not augment CD11b or CD11a expression (P>0.05). In contrast, heme significantly augmented the active conformations of these two β2 integrin subunits, as demonstrated by epitope-specific antibodies (CD11b; heme: 520.5±51.8; basal 123.7±16.7 MFI, n=10, P<0.001 and CD11a; heme: 69.8±3.9; basal: 43.8±2.0 MFI, n=6, P>0.001). Inhibition of NFκB translocation with BAY 11-7082 (20 μM) significantly decreased the activity of the LFA-1 integrin on the surface of neutrophils after heme stimulation (reduced to 47.6±4.2 MIF, n=6; P<0.05). To assess whether heme-induced neutrophil adhesive properties are mediated by cytoskeletal rearrangements, we evaluated the effects of cytochalasin D (0.5 μg/ml), an inhibitor of actin polymerization. While cytochalasin D inhibited TNF-α-induced neutrophils adhesion (data not shown, P<0.05), this compound did not significantly alter the adhesive properties of heme-stimulated neutrophils to FN (heme: 22.8±2.3%, p<0.001; cytochalasin D: 22.5±2.0%, p=0.4; n=6). Pre-incubation of heme-stimulated neutrophils with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (120 µM; 3.5 hours) and α-tocopherol (1mM; 15 min), reduced their adhesion to FN by 14.4±9.2% and 46.5±5.5% respect. n=6, p<0.05). Conclusion: We therefore demonstrate, herein, that heme is a potent activator of neutrophil adhesive properties, increasing the ligand affinity of the β2 integrins via a mechanism that is apparently mediated by an NFkB-dependent pathway. The mechanism of neutrophil activation appears to differ from that stimulated by TNF-α and may involve, in part, the generation of reactive oxygen species. Given the fundamental role that the adhesion of neutrophils to the vascular wall plays in the vaso-occlusive process in sickle cell disease and other vascular inflammatory processes, our findings further support the idea that cell-free heme represents a major therapeutic target in the hemolytic diseases.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.