Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) has historically been reserved for younger, fit patients with hematologic malignancies. With the introduction of non-myeloablative conditioning regimens and improved supportive care, alloHCT has been increasingly offered to older adults.
To determine the association between functional status as measured by a cancer-specific comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and post-transplant outcomes in an older alloHCT patient population.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients aged 50 or older who underwent alloHCT at the University of California San Francisco between October 2011 and September 2017. A cancer-specific CGA (1) was administered prior to alloHCT, which included measures of functional status such as Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Physical Health scale, and patient-reported Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS). Post-transplant outcomes included length of hospital stay (LOS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).
A total of 148 patients were included in the analysis. The median age at transplant was 62 (range 50-76). Disease types included acute myeloid leukemia (43%), myelodysplastic syndrome (26%), myeloproliferative neoplasm (12%), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (10%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5%), multiple myeloma (1%), and other (3%); 68% received non-myeloablative conditioning. Median follow-up was 16.3 months (range 0.9-72.7 months). Median PFS and OS were 22.9 months and 47.6 months, respectively. At baseline, 39% had at least one IADL deficit, and 88% had at least one MOS Physical Health scale deficit. The mean patient-KPS was 82.4 and mean provider-KPS was 91.6; these were weakly correlated (Spearman's r=0.39, p<0.001).
In univariate analysis, the presence of any IADL deficit was associated with inferior PFS (HR 1.78, p=0.01) and OS (HR 1.68, p=0.04) (Figure). MOS Physical Health score was associated with increased NRM (HR 1.06 per 1-point change in 20-point scale, p=0.04), inferior OS (HR 1.05, p=0.04), increased LOS (difference 0.63 days, p=0.007), but not with PFS (HR 1.04, p=0.06). Neither patient- nor provider-KPS was associated with NRM, PFS, or OS, but lower patient-KPS was associated with increased LOS (difference 1.94 days, p=0.01). In this study, the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI), disease risk by American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) classification, and conditioning intensity were not associated with NRM, PFS, or OS.
Notably, chronologic age was not associated with NRM, PFS, or OS (Figure). In addition, age was not associated with baseline IADL score (r=-0.02, p=0.26) or MOS Physical Health score (r=-0.13, p=0.06).
IADL impairment was associated with inferior PFS and OS, supporting previous studies (2, 3) identifying IADL as an important predictor for alloHCT. In univariate analysis, IADL was a stronger predictor of post-transplant outcomes than traditional prognostication tools such as age, HCT-CI, and provider-KPS. MOS Physical Health score was associated with multiple poor outcomes including NRM and LOS, suggesting a primary impact on alloHCT toxicity. Multivariate analyses, as well as examination of other CGA variables, are ongoing.
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Andreadis:Genentech: Consultancy, Employment; Gilead: Consultancy; Juno: Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy; Kite: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy; Astellas: Consultancy. Logan:Napajen: Consultancy; Adaptive Biotech: Consultancy; Shire: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Incyte: Consultancy; Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy; Astellas: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Research Funding; Kite: Research Funding. Mannis:Agios: Research Funding; AbbVie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; NKarta: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Smith:Astellas Pharma: Research Funding. Martin:Roche: Consultancy; Amgen: Research Funding; Sanofi: Research Funding. Damon:Novartis: Other: spouse's relationship with company; Boston Scientific: Other: spouse's relationship with company; Actelion: Other: spouse's relationship with company; Gilead Sciences Inc: Other: spouse's relationship with company. Olin:Synapse: Honoraria; Astellas: Research Funding; Daiichi Sankyo: Research Funding; Genentech: Research Funding.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.