Abstract

Background

The introduction of multiple novel agents and regimens for NDMM and relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM) has improved outcomes while increasing the complexity of treatment selection and disease management. The real-world effectiveness of many novel-agent-based regimens remains to be elucidated. INSIGHT MM (NCT02761187) is the largest global, prospective, observational MM study to date. It aims to understand global NDMM/RRMM disease and pt characteristics, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes, as well as regional variations. Here we report data for 1056 NDMM pts enrolled from July 1, 2016 to April 27, 2018.

Methods

INSIGHT MM is enrolling ~4200 adult pts with NDMM/RRMM (1-3 prior therapies) from 15 countries; 9 in Europe (EU), 3 in Latin America (LA), the United States (US), and 2 in Asia. Pts will be followed prospectively for ≥5 yrs. Data are collected from hospital/clinic records at baseline (MM-specific disease characteristics, prior therapies) and every 3 mos (disease management, effectiveness, safety).

Results

At data cut-off, 1056 NDMM pts had been enrolled from 14 countries, including 495 (47%) from EU, 361 (34%) from the US, 112 (11%) from LA, and 88 (8%) from Taiwan. Median age at enrollment was 64 (range 32-89) yrs and 139 (13%) pts were aged >75 yrs (14%/12%/11%/13% in EU/US/Taiwan/LA); 57% of pts were male (60%/58%/61%/39% in EU/US/Taiwan/LA); 72%, 13%, and 8% were White/Caucasian, Asian, and Black/African American, respectively. Overall, 62% of pts were treated at academic centers and 38% in community settings. Based on accrual at data cut-off, regional differences were observed, with more pts treated at academic centers in EU/Taiwan (88%/91%) vs the US/LA (30%/25%). 87% of pts were treated outside of clinical trials (88%/82%/95%/98% in EU/US/Taiwan/LA). Bone pain (32%, including 33%/28%/40%/37% in EU/US/Taiwan/LA), weakness/fatigue (anemia; 11%, including 12%/10%/6%/18% in EU/US/Taiwan/LA), and kidney problems (5%, including 3%/3%/17%/2% in EU/US/Taiwan/LA) were the most common reasons for pts seeking care; 32% (36%/32%/22%/24% in EU/US/Taiwan/LA) were asymptomatic at diagnosis. At diagnosis, 27%/26%/31% of pts had physician-reported ISS Stage I/II/III MM, and 88% had ECOG PS 0-1; 8% of pts had hypercalcemia, 34% creatinine clearance <60 ml/min, 56% anemia, and 30% >3 bone lesions. The most common reasons for initiating therapy were the presence of CRAB criteria, e.g. bone involvement (54%) and anemia (37%). At start of treatment, fixed-duration therapy, treat-to-best-response, and treat-to-progression approaches were planned for 38%, 29%, and 31% of pts, respectively. The most frequently administered regimens are shown in the Table; 20%/66% of pts received a doublet/triplet. V-based regimens were the most frequently used. Regional differences in regimen selection are emerging: among IMiDs, T is most commonly prescribed in EU, Taiwan, and LA; R is more common in the US. After a median follow-up of 9.3 mos, 72 (7%) pts had discontinued the study, most often due to death (57%), consent withdrawal (14%), or change of treatment provider (11%). At data cut-off, data for 236 (22%) pts who received 1st-line ASCT were available (median age 60 yrs; 12%/63%/25% of pts aged <50/50-65/>65 yrs). Of these, 64% received ASCT at academic centers; 42% of pts each in EU and the US received ASCT vs 11% in Taiwan and 4% in LA. The most frequently administered regimens in ASCT-eligible (n=429) vs ASCT-ineligible (n=571) pts were VC±d (21% vs 21%), VR±d (19% vs 17%) and VT±d (17% vs 10%). At data cut-off, 115 NDMM pts had progressed to 2nd-line therapy; 99 pts received a PI with 1st-line therapy, of whom 33 (33%) then received a PI-based regimen in 2nd line; 61 pts received an IMiD with 1st-line therapy, of whom 35 (57%) then received an IMiD-based regimen in 2nd line. Among 1st/2nd-line pts, 2%/12% received monoclonal antibody therapy.

Conclusions

PIs and IMiDs remain the global backbones of MM therapy, with V-based regimens most commonly used in NDMM pts, regardless of intended transplant status. These data from INSIGHT MM are beginning to elucidate regional differences in disease presentation and treatment selection, including higher numbers of pts receiving ASCT in the US/EU vs Taiwan/LA, which are likely reflective of differences in healthcare systems and access to MM treatments in the participating countries. Future studies will evaluate the impact of these regional variations on outcomes.

Disclosures

Usmani:Abbvie, Amgen, Celgene, Genmab, Merck, MundiPharma, Janssen, Seattle Genetics: Consultancy; Amgen, BMS, Celgene, Janssen, Merck, Pharmacyclics,Sanofi, Seattle Genetics, Takeda: Research Funding. Hungria:Celgene: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria. Leleu:Karyopharm: Honoraria; Incyte: Honoraria, Other: steering committee membership ; Celgene: Honoraria, Other: steering committee membership ; Janssen: Honoraria, Other; BMS: Honoraria, Other: steering committee membership ; Merk: Honoraria, Other: steering committee membership ; Takeda: Honoraria, Other: steering committee membership ; Amgen: Honoraria, Other: steering committee membership ; Sanofi: Honoraria, Other: steering committee membership steering committee membership ; Novartis: Honoraria, Other: steering committee membership ; Roche: Honoraria; Gilead: Honoraria. Lee:Celgene: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Adaptive Biotechnologies Corporation: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Chugai Biopharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Takeda Oncology: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Kite Pharma: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Davies:Abbvie: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria; Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; TRM Oncology: Honoraria; ASH: Honoraria; MMRF: Honoraria. Costello:Poseida Therapeutics, Inc.: Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy. Rifkin:Takeda: Consultancy; EMD Serono: Consultancy; McKesson: Equity Ownership; Celgene: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy; Sandoz: Consultancy; Boehringer Ingelheim: Consultancy. Weisel:Amgen, BMS, Celgene, Janssen, and Takeda: Honoraria; Amgen, BMS, Celgene, Janssen, Juno, Sanofi, and Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen, Celgene, Janssen, and Sanofi: Research Funding. Chari:Adaptive Biotechnology: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; The Binding Site: Consultancy; Pharmacyclics: Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Array Biopharma: Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Puig:Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria; Celgene: Honoraria, Research Funding. Boccadoro:Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding; Celgene: Honoraria, Research Funding; Janssen: Honoraria, Research Funding; Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding; AbbVie: Honoraria; Mundipharma: Research Funding; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria, Research Funding; Sanofi: Honoraria, Research Funding. Cook:Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria; Glycomimetics: Consultancy, Honoraria; Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Celgene Corporation: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Seattle Genetics: Honoraria; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Berdeja:Teva: Research Funding; Janssen: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Poseida Therapeutics, Inc.: Research Funding; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Celgene: Research Funding; Bluebird: Research Funding; Genentech: Research Funding; Glenmark: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; Sanofi: Research Funding. Zonder:Takeda: Honoraria; Coelum: Honoraria; BMS: Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria; Alnylam: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria; Pharmacyclics: Other: DSMC. Abonour:Prothena: Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding. Hajek:Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Spencer:Celgene: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Janssen-Cilag: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding; BMS: Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; STA: Honoraria. Omel:Takeda Oncology: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene Corporation: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Demers:Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA, a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited: Employment. Romanus:Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA, a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited: Employment. Ren:Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co.: Employment. Skacel:Department of Hematology, Charles University General Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic: Other: Affiliation; Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA, a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited: Employment. Stull:Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA, a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited: Employment. Terpos:Novartis: Honoraria; Celgene: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Grant, Patents & Royalties; Genesis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Grant, Research Funding; Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Grant, Patents & Royalties; Amgen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Grant, Research Funding.

Author notes

*

Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.