The frequent von Willebrand factor (VWF) variant p.Phe2561Tyr is located within the C4 domain, which also harbors the platelet GPIIb/IIIa-binding RGD sequence. To investigate its potential effect on hemostasis, we genotyped 865 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 915 with myocardial infarction (MI) and 417 controls (Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (LURIC)) and performed functional studies of this variant. A univariate analysis of male and female carriers of the Tyr2561 allele ≤55 years revealed an elevated risk for repeated MI (Odds ratio: 2.53, 95% CI:1.07-5.98). The Odds ratio was even higher in females ≤55 years at a value of 5.93 (95% CI:1.12-31.24). Cone and plate aggregometry showed, that compared to Phe2561, Tyr2561 was associated with increased platelet aggregate size, both in probands' blood and with the recombinant variants. Inhibition of the VWF-GPIIb/IIIa interaction abrogated the effect. Microfluidic assays revealed that the critical shear rate for inducing aggregate formation was decreased to 50% by Tyr2561 compared to Phe2561. Differences in C-domain circular dichroism spectra resulting from Tyr2561 suggest an increased shear sensitivity of VWF, as a result of altered association of the C-domains that disrupts the normal dimer interface. In summary, our data emphasize the functional impact of the VWF C4-domain for VWF-mediated platelet aggregation in a GPIIb/IIIa-dependent manner and provide the first evidence that a functional variant of VWF plays a role in arterial thromboembolism.
Schneppenheim:SHIRE: Consultancy; CSL Behring: Consultancy.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.