Introduction: Chromothripsis is a recently identified genomic instability phenomenon that plays a role in the genesis and progression of cancer. It is a one-step catastrophic genomic event involving multiple chromosomal breakages and random DNA rejoining. This genetic abnormality can affect an entire chromosome, a chromosomal arm, or a single chromosomal region. Chromothripsis is associated with highly complex karyotypes and a very poor prognosis, and has been detected in a wide range of tumor entities, including hematological malignancies. However, this complex genomic abnormality has not been comprehensively studied in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The aim of the study was to assess the incidence, associated genetic features, and clinical significance of chromothripsis in a large homogeneous cohort of patients newly diagnosed with high-risk MDS and complex karyotypes.
Methods: A detailed genome-wide analysis of fixed bone-marrow cells from adults with complex karyotypes (≥ 3 aberrations), identified with conventional G-banding at the diagnosis of MDS, was performed. The complex rearrangements were studied with integrative genetic methodologies: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with Vysis DNA probes (Abbott, Des Plaines, IL), multicolor FISH (mFISH) and/or multicolor banding (mBAND) methods with the 24XCyte and the XCyte color kits (MetaSystems, Altlussheim, Germany), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization with CytoChip Cancer SNP 180K (Illumina, San Diego, CA) or the SurePrint G3 Cancer CGH+SNP 4x180K Microarray (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA). A mutational analysis of the TP53 gene was also performed in selected cases using amplicon-based deep sequencing on a 454 GS Junior System (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) or the TruSight Myeloid Sequencing Panel on MiSeq sequencing instruments (Illumina).
Results: In total, 265 patients with complex karyotypes and newly diagnosed high-risk MDS were included (131 females, 134 males; median age, 70 years). The hallmarks of chromothripsis were detected in 67.7% of cases, in both the main clones and one or more subclones. At the cytogenetic level, chromothripsis was apparent as multiple deletions, insertions, ring chromosomes, amplification of individual genes or chromosomal regions, and/or the formation of chaotically reassembled chromosomes. Chromothripsis affected almost all the chromosomes, except the Y chromosome. The most frequently involved were chromosomes 5 (33.3% of events), 7 (28.1% of events), 17 (18.9% of events), 11 and 12 (15.6% of events each). In samples with signs of chromothripsis, the higher frequency of aberrations on chromosome 17p was observed (loss of heterozygosity [LOH], copy-number neutral LOH [cnLOH] and/or homozygous mutation of TP53) (p = 0.05). Patients with chromothripsis had significantly worse overall survival (OS; median, 3 months). We also investigated the effect of chromothripsis on the survival of 183 patients treated with azacytidine. In this cohort, the median OS of chromothripsis-positive patients was 10.1 months (mean, 12.2 months), whereas the median OS of chromothripsis-negative patients was 17.3 months (mean, 31.0 months).
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that chromothripsis is a frequent genomic abnormality in patients with high-risk MDS, which influences the patient's prognosis and disease biology. Chromothripsis was associated with a higher frequency of LOH/cnLOH 17p, rapid disease progression, and short survival. The adverse outcomes may be attributable to the effects on the functions of many important genes. The OS of patients with high-risk MDS with chromotripsis may be slightly improved by azacytidine treatment, but the prognosis of these patients remains very poor. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanistic basis of chromothripsis is extremely important and could lead to the development of new treatment strategies based on drugs that target the genes present in amplified or deleted regions and/or the DNA damage response pathways.
Thisstudy was supported by research projects RVO-VFN64165, GACR P302/12/G157,AZV 16-27790A,Progres Q26 and Q28/LF1, GACR 18-01687S, MHCR 00023736 and UNCE/MED/016.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.