BACKGROUND: Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are observed in approximately 4% of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and have been linked with increased transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Ivosidenib (AG-120), an oral, potent, targeted, small-molecule inhibitor of the mutant IDH1 protein (mIDH1), is a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of patients with mIDH1 MDS. Through inhibition of mIDH1, ivosidenib suppresses the production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), leading to clinical responses via differentiation of malignant cells.
AIM: To report safety and efficacy data from patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) MDS enrolled in the first-in-human, phase 1, dose escalation and expansion study of ivosidenib in patients with mIDH1 advanced hematologic malignancies (NCT02074839).
METHODS: This ongoing study is evaluating the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical activity of ivosidenib. Trial enrollment was completed on 08May2017. In dose escalation, patients received single-agent ivosidenib orally once daily (QD) or twice daily in 28-day cycles. The MTD was not reached and 500 mg QD was selected as the dose to be tested in expansion. Expansion Arm 3 enrolled patients with mIDH1 advanced hematologic malignancies, including MDS. The overall response rate (ORR) for MDS was defined as complete remission (CR) + partial remission + marrow CR. Exploratory biomarker assessments included baseline co-occurring mutations (next-generation sequencing panel for hematologic malignancies) and mIDH1 variant allele frequency (VAF) in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BEAMing Digital PCR; lower limit of detection for mIDH1, 0.02-0.04%). Here, we present safety and efficacy data for patients with MDS in expansion Arm 3 and in dose escalation whose starting dose was 500 mg QD.
RESULTS: In all, 258 patients (78 in dose escalation, 180 in expansion) received ivosidenib, including 12 patients with MDS (9 from expansion and 3 from escalation) whose starting dose was 500 mg QD. Baseline characteristics for these 12 patients were: 9 men/3 women; median age, 72.5 years (range, 52-78) and 42% were ≥75 years of age; median number of prior therapies, 1 (range, 1-3). As of 10Nov2017, 7 of 12 (58.3%) patients remained on treatment and 5 (41.7%) had discontinued (one for allogeneic stem cell transplantation). The median duration of exposure to ivosidenib was 11.0 months (range, 3.3-31.1). The most common adverse events (AEs) of any grade, irrespective of causality, occurring in ≥20% of the 12 patients were back pain (n=4, 33.3%) and anemia, decreased appetite, diarrhea, dyspnea, fatigue, hypokalemia, pruritus, and rash (n=3, 25.0% each). The majority of these AEs were grade 1-2 and reported as unrelated to treatment. No AEs led to permanent discontinuation of treatment. IDH differentiation syndrome (IDH-DS) was observed in 2 of 12 (16.7%) patients; the events were grade 1 and 2, respectively. Of the 12 patients with MDS receiving ivosidenib 500 mg QD, 5 achieved CR (41.7%; 95% CI 15.2%, 72.3%) and 6 achieved marrow CR (50.0%), resulting in an ORR of 91.7% (95% CI 61.5%, 99.8%). The median durations of CR and overall response were not estimable at the time of the data cutoff. The percentages of patients who remained in CR and response at 12 months were 60.0% and 61.4%, respectively. Among 5 patients who were transfusion dependent at baseline, 4 became transfusion independent for at least 56 days on treatment. Baseline co-occurring mutations and changes in mIDH1 VAF levels on ivosidenib therapy will be presented.
CONCLUSION: In patients with mIDH1 R/R MDS, ivosidenib monotherapy was well tolerated and induced durable remissions and transfusion independence. These findings support the role of ivosidenib as an effective, oral, targeted treatment for patients with mIDH1 R/R MDS.
DiNardo:Karyopharm: Other: Advisory role; Medimmune: Other: Advisory role; Celgene: Other: Advisory role; Bayer: Other: Advisory role; Agios: Consultancy, Other: Advisory role; AbbVie: Consultancy, Other: Advisory role. Watts:Jazz Pharma: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Research Funding. Stein:Celgene: Consultancy; Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy; Agios: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy. de Botton:Agios: Research Funding; Celgene: Honoraria, Research Funding. Fathi:Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria; Jazz: Honoraria; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Boston Biomedical: Consultancy, Honoraria; Astellas: Honoraria; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria; Agios: Honoraria, Research Funding. Stein:Amgen: Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Speakers Bureau. Foran:Agios: Research Funding; Xencor, Inc.: Research Funding. Stone:AbbVie: Consultancy; Agios: Consultancy, Research Funding; Cornerstone: Consultancy; Orsenix: Consultancy; Fujifilm: Consultancy; Sumitomo: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy, Other: Data and Safety Monitoring Board, Steering Committee; Ono: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Otsuka: Consultancy; Jazz: Consultancy; Merck: Consultancy; Astellas: Consultancy; Arog: Consultancy, Research Funding; Argenx: Other: Data and Safety Monitoring Board; Amgen: Consultancy. Patel:France Foundation: Honoraria; Dava Oncology: Honoraria; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Tallman:Cellerant: Research Funding; BioSight: Other: Advisory board; ADC Therapeutics: Research Funding; AbbVie: Research Funding; Daiichi-Sankyo: Other: Advisory board; AROG: Research Funding; Orsenix: Other: Advisory board. Choe:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Wang:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Zhang:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Dai:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Fan:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Yen:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Kapsalis:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Hickman:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Agresta:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Liu:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership. Wu:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership, Patents & Royalties. Attar:Agios: Employment, Equity Ownership.
Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.