Glucocorticoids (GCs) have a crucial role in the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). GCs resistance is considered a strong prognostic marker of relapse, which occurs in about 20% of pediatric B-ALL patients. GCs exert therapeutic effects by inducing cell cycle arrest and eventually, cell death. However, their precise mechanisms of action and resistance are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated the importance of developmental state in treatment failure in B-ALL (Good Z Nat Med 2018 and Bendall SC Cell 2014), specifically at the developmental transition between pro-B to pre-B cells. Using this developmental framework, we examined the effect of GCs on healthy and malignant early B cells progenitors to better understand mediators of GC resistance.
To understand the transcriptional programs mediating early B-cell differentiation, we sorted three B-cell developmental populations (pre-pro-B, pro-B/pre-B I and pre-B II) and performed RNA-seq analysis. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a coordinated upregulation of B cell developmental genes and Glucocorticoid Receptor (GCR) pathway genes in healthy pre-B I cells, suggesting a role of GCs in healthy B-cell development. We confirmed expression of the GCR in healthy pre-B I cells by mass cytometry (CyTOF). Further, in vitro treatment of healthy B-cells with GCs (dexamethasone, dex 1 uM) demonstrated pre-B I cycling cells to be most sensitive to GC-induced cell death.
Given the importance of GCs in B-ALL treatment, we investigated the GCR pathway and its relationship with B-cell development in 18 B-ALL primary samples (14 diagnosis, 4 relapse; including Ph+=1; MLL rearranged=2; TEL-AML translocated=3). Samples were profiled by CyTOF with a 40-antibody panel including surface markers, signaling molecules, transcription factors, apoptosis and cell cycle molecules. To better comprehend the relation of GCR pathway with BCR signaling, primary cells were analyzed after 48 hours of treatment with dex (1uM), SRC/ABL inhibitor dasatinib (das, 100 nM) or their combination.
Similar to results obtained in healthy B-cells, we found the highest expression of GCR in the pre B-I cells in all patients (p<0.001). Interestingly, samples from relapse or diagnostic high-risk groups demonstrated the highest expression of GCR in this cell population. As expected, dex induced cell cycle arrest and cell death in almost all the samples (88%), while two samples were completely unresponsive. Moreover, combined treatment resulted in increased cell death in 29% of patients, compared to dex or das alone.
Interestingly, we also observed consistent patterns of phenotypic modulation in dex-resistant cells and to understand how these were related to B-cell development we performed developmental classification (Good Z Nat Med 2018) of leukemic cells in dex-treated versus untreated conditions. This analysis revealed a large decrease of early B-cell progenitors and corresponding increase of more mature subsets of either B and non-B cells (false discovery rate, FDR<0.001), suggesting a differentiating effect of GCs. This phenomenon was even more prominent when we performed, for some primary samples (n=4), longer culture up to six days. Moreover, dex-resistant cells showed aberrant activation of prpS6 and pCREB that was blunted by the combination with das resulting in a reversion of the phenotype and killing of the majority of the cells.
To determine if this effect was directly related to GCR expression, we compared results between a GCR+ cell line (NALM6) and GCR- cell line (REH). Consistent with the primary samples, the combination of dex with das more effectively killed NALM6 cells yet the REH were unresponsive to either treatment. However, overexpressing GCR in REH cells reversed dex-resistance, also becoming more sensitive to the combined treatment with das. Similar to primary cells, NALM6 and REH GCR+ cells showed a phenotypic change when treated with dex, that will be further investigated to clarify the relationship between the dex-induced phenotype and its apoptotic effect.
In summary, these data suggest a dual role of glucocorticoids on early B-cells; mediating both apoptosis and differentiation in relationship to cell cycle status and GCR level. These findings may carry therapeutic implications and suggest cell types vulnerable to BCR signaling inhibition as a therapeutic intervention to overcome GCs resistance.
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